African voodoo statues

African voodoo statues DEFAULT

Vodun, African Voodoo .

Exhibition overview

The Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present for the first time an exceptional group of vodun objects from the collection Anne and Jacques Kerchache, in a scenography conceived by Enzo Mari, one of the great masters of Italian industrial design. The exhibition is organized in close collaboration with Anne Kerchache—today Mrs. Kamal Douaoui—who was the wife of Jacques Kerchache until his death in 2001.

Artists and contributors of the exhibition:

The exhibition in detail

For the primitive arts and most notably for vodun, there is Jacques Kerchache and only him.
André Malraux

An artistic advisor and curator of exhibitions, Jacques Kerchache was a strong advocate of the Primitive Arts, promoting their entry into important French museum collections. It was under his initiative that the Pavillon des Sessions was created at the Louvre in 2001, as well as the musée du quai Branly in 2006. Jacques Kerchache also collaborated with the Fondation Cartier on many occasions, first on the thematic exhibitions À visage découvert (1992) and être nature (1998) as well as on the solo show of the Haitian artist Patrick Vilaire in Réflexion sur la mort (1997).

As early as the late sixties, Jacques Kerchache recognized the aesthetic potency and stunning originality of voodoo statuary and its forms. It was at this time, during his first trips to the birthplace of voodoo currently known as the Republic of Benin, that he began to bring together what has become the most significant existing collection of African voodoo statuary. The exhibition will present approximately hundred objects, including some that now belong to other private collectors.

An anthropomorphic assemblage of materials such as ropes, bones, shells, and pottery, voodoo sculptures assume a critical role in the practice of this ancient religious cult, still active today from the coasts of Togo to Western Nigeria. Covered with a thick layer of matter includes earth, palm oil and powder, these strange and uncanny sculptures emanate qualities of tension and foreboding. Their ambiguous aesthetics are closely linked to their role in both protecting their owners from danger and harming those responsible for their difficulties.

Image gallery

View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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Picture

© Yuji Ono

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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Picture

© Olivier Ouadah

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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Picture

© Olivier Ouadah

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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View of the exhibition Vodun: African Voodoo, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2011

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Sours: https://www.fondationcartier.com/en/exhibitions/les-tresors-du-vaudou

Vodun art

For art associated with the Haitian Vodou religion, see Haitian Vodou art.

Vodun art is associated with the West African Vodun religion of Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana. The term is sometimes used more generally for art associated with related religions of West and Central Africa and of the African diaspora in Brazil, the Caribbean and the United States. Art forms include bocio, carved wooden statues that represent supernatural beings and may be activated through various ritual steps, and Asen, metal objects that attract spirits of the dead or other spirits and give them a temporary resting place. Vodun is assimilative, and has absorbed concepts and images from other parts of Africa, India, Europe and the Americas. Chromolithographs representing Indian deities have become identified with traditional Vodun deities and used as the basis for murals in Vodun temples. The Ouidah '92 festival, held in Benin in 1993, celebrated the removal of restrictions on Vodun in that country and began a revival of Vodun art.

Background[edit]

1892 map of the Côte des escalves (Slave Coast) showing Dahomey (French) between Togo (German) and Lagos (British)

The term "Vodun" covers a number of cults dedicated to different deities in the same pantheon, or to spirits, natural forces or ancestors, either disembodied or resident in fetishes. Each cult has specific rites, sacred objects, esoteric "deep knowledge", priestly hierarchies and initiation processes. In the precolonial period in Dahomey the system of cults was closely related to the ruling structure. "Vodun" is also used in a loose sense for religions of various societies from Dahomey, western Nigeria and southwestern Zaire. People from these countries were taken as slaves to Brazil and the Caribbean where they continue to practice religions derived from Vodun. The Haitian Vodou religion combines elements of the classical religions of Dahomey, Yorubaland and Kongo.[a]

Various art historians have argued that Vodun is assimilative, taking foreign objects and interpreting them to meet indigenous needs. Modern Vodun arts continue to draw in symbolic and material elements from other parts of Africa, Europe, India and African America.

West African Vodun religious objects were at first viewed by outsiders simply as religious fetishes. Later they became valued as art objects, and then as symbols of the African diaspora. They have been interpreted as modern art and also as traditional art. It is said that Pablo Picasso was inspired by traditional West African sculpture when he made his proto-cubist painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. With the Ouidah '92 festival, Vodou art has become a symbol of national identity in Benin.[6]

Art forms[edit]

Bocheawin Benin around Abomey 2013
Dolls at Akodessawa Fetish Market, Lomé, Togo

Bocio[edit]

Suzanne Blier's African Vodun. Art, Psychology, and Power (Chicago, 1995) was the most complete English-language account of African vodun objects when it was published, based on a summer of fieldwork in Abomey, Benin and nearby towns. It discusses the religious artifacts of the Fon people and their neighbors in Benin and Togo, called bocio or bocheaw (empowered bodies) and the associated vodun beliefs and practices. Blier says the bocio are mainly "counter aesthetic", the opposite of what the Fon would consider pleasing or beautiful. They are designed to attract and hold powerful forces through which the owner can achieve goals such as controlling others, attaining well-being, harming enemies or protecting against destructive forces sent out by enemies.

1880s Chromolithograph of a Samoan snake charmer, identified as Mami Wata

Typically the bocio are wood carvings enhanced with medicines that are packed inside them or attached in packets, and with paint and objects such as horns, beads or chains. Often they are bound, clothed or pegged to hold in the magical powers. The bocio objects are linked to gods, forest spirits or the dead, or to animals or plants that have properties associated with these beings.Bocio are activated or empowered by assemblage, speech, saliva, heat in the form of pepper and alcohol, knotting and offering to the higher power or deity. Some have pointed bases so they can be driven into the earth, the source of power for the trickster deity Legba. These can only be activated once. Others may have plinth bases and may be activated more than once.

Indian art[edit]

The coastal regions of what are now Benin and Togo have long been open to external ideas and images that have been absorbed into the local culture, and are reflected in the elastic structure of Vodun religion and art. In the late 1950s Indian chromolithographs started to be incorporated in Vodun art. In Vodun belief all Indian spirits come from the sea; "India" and the sea are the same concept. Chromolithographs representing Indian gods and printed in India, England or Nigeria have been widely distributed in West Africa since the 1950s. Much the most popular image is that of the snake charmer. This image, derived from a painting of a performer in a German circus, has been identified as an image of the local water spirit and seductress Mami Wata. Other images of other Indian gods have been identified with other local spirits.

In the 21st century the artist Joseph Kossivi Ahiator of Ghana has been much in demand as an India spirit temple painter in Benin, Togo and Ghana. When commissioned to paint a Vodun temple he refers to his collection of chromolithographs, to the images in his dreams and to the dreams and desires of the owner of the temple. Ahiator often visits India in his dreams, or on the beach, and Indian images are clearly recognizable in his temple murals. The temple of Gilbert Attissou, a prominent Vodun priest in Aného, Togo has bas-relief figures of Shiva and Lakshmi on either side of the doorway, and has an "India" shrine with walls decorated with Mami Wata, Lord Shiva, Lakshmi and other deities. The shrine is dedicated to Nana-Yo, one of the Vodun names for Shiva. Attissou was also drawn to the Indian gods and their power to control the sea from an early age, and used to spend many hours on the beach, where he made long visits to "India".

Asen[edit]

Asen altar attributed to the artist Akati Akpene Kendo

Asen is a general term for movable metal objects that attract the spirits of the dead and of the deities called vodun and temporarily hold them. They vary greatly in form and size. Ancestral asen, which honor the dead, are authentic ritual sculptures in the sense that they are made by African artists for religious purposes and not for the tourist trade. However, they seem to have first appeared only in the late precolonial period. At first they were adopted by the rulers of Dahomey from the Yoruba people, used as ancestral altars to enhance the prestige of the dynasty. After the French established colonial rule and abolished the monarchy, asen were adopted by all levels of society in Benin.

Ouidah festival[edit]

The First International Festival of Vodun Arts and Cultures was held in Ouidah, Benin in February 1993, sponsored by UNESCO and the government of Benin. It celebrated the transatlantic Vodun religion, and was attended by priest and priestesses from Haiti, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago, Brazil and the United States, as well as by government officials and tourists from Europe and the Americas. Some of the art commissioned for the festival is displayed at sites in the city, including work by the Benin artists Cyprien Tokoudagba, Calixte Dakpogan, Theodore Dakpogan, Simonet Biokou, Dominique Kouas, and Yves Apollinaire Pede, and work of the African Diaspora artists Edouard Duval-Carrié (Haiti), José Claudio (Brazil) and Manuel Mendive (Cuba).

  • Altar and fetishes, Abomey, Benin

  • Vodun Shrine in Abomey, Benin

  • Animal Motif and Hanging Cloth on Vodun Shrine in Abomey, Benin

  • Cyprien Tokoudagba, Voodoo Pantheon (1989). Zangbeto (with horns, background) and Legba, sitting naked, judging a sinner.

References[edit]

  1. ^The Vodun religion of Dahomey was influenced by the Yoruba religion, which already had similar concepts, when Dahomey conquered the Yoruba lands in the 17th century and assimilated elements of Yoruba culture.

Sources[edit]

  • Adogame, Afeosemime Unuose; Echtler, Magnus; Vierke, Ulf (2008). "The idea of 'India'". Unpacking the New: Critical Perspectives on Cultural Syncretization in Africa and Beyond. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN . Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  • Bay, Edna G. (2008). Asen, Ancestors, and Vodun: Tracing Change in African Art. University of Illinois Press. ISBN . Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  • Beidelman, T. O. (1996). "Review of Blier, Suzanne Preston: African Vodun. Art, Psychology, and Power". Anthropos. Anthropos Institute. 91 (4./6). JSTOR 40464518.
  • Hackett, Rosalind I. J. (1998-10-01). Art and Religion in Africa. A&C Black. ISBN . Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  • Hawley, John C. (2008-06-25). India in Africa, Africa in India: Indian Ocean Cosmopolitanisms. Indiana University Press. ISBN . Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  • Kerchache, Jacques (2011). "Vodun Art". Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  • Norman, Neil L. (2014-10-03). "Sacred Vortices of the African Atlantic World". Materialities of Ritual in the Black Atlantic. Indiana University Press. ISBN . Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  • Rahier, Jean Muteba; Hintzen, Percy C.; Smith, Felipe (2010). Global Circuits of Blackness: Interrogating the African Diaspora. University of Illinois Press. ISBN . Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  • Rush, Dana (Winter 2001). "Contemporary Vodun Arts of Ouidah, Benin". African Arts. UCLA James S. Coleman African Studies Center. 34 (4): 32–96. doi:10.2307/3337805. JSTOR 3337805.
  • Rush, Dana (2009). "Trans-suds, imaginaires de l'"Inde" dans l'art, la pratique et la pensée Vodun d'Afrique d l'ouest.". Afrique, la globalisation par les Suds. KARTHALA Editions. ISBN . Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  • Sutherland, Peter (2006). "Vodun Art and the Hyper-Visualization of Africa". Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review. International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments (IASTE). 18 (1): 53–54. JSTOR 23565987.
  • Thompson, Robert Farris (2010-05-26). Flash of the Spirit: African & Afro-American Art & Philosophy. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN . Retrieved 2015-06-01.

Further reading[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodun_art
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‘vodun’ african voodoo
fondation cartier, paris, france
until 25 september, 2011

 

 

the practice of vodun has always been confined to an intellectual elite. its objects or fetishes can only act once they have been rendered sacred. they are the material signs of divine affirmation and their longevity depends on their use. the fondation cartier pour l’art contemporain presents for the first time an exceptional group of vodun objects from the collection anne and jacques kerchache, found in the birthplace of voodoo — currently known as the republic of benin. approximately hundred objects are on show. designboom visited the opening of the exhibition and directly reports from it.

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
nago and fon vodun sculptures, benin (23.5 x 4.5 x 5 cm, 18.5 x 5.5 x 5 cm, 20 x 4 x 3 cm, 18 x 4 x 5.5 cm, 20 x 4 x 4 cm) | wood, rope, clay, sacrificial patina | collection anne and jacques kerchache | photo © yuji ono
(main image) fon vodun sculpture, benin (43 x 14 x 11 cm) | wood, sacrificial patina | courtesy robert t. wall family | photo © yuji ono

 

 

the most common and prototypical of the bocio genre, are bla-bocio whose surface have been bound tightly with cord. bondage is associated with a range of emotionally charged ideas, the most powerful of which is death. works of this genre are also respond to problems such as imprisonment, impotence and personal pain. while often related to negative ideas, cords are also identified with positive values such as life. for example pregnant woman will often wear special cords around their hips as a protection against miscarriage. the cords displayed in bocio sculptures allude to similar ideas of security, life and family continuity.

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
fon vodun object, benin (34 x 6.5 x 9.5 cm)
wood, rope, sacrificial patina
collection anne and jacques kerchache
photo © yuji ono

 

 

pierced or pegged bocio secure the spoken word, and have the power of activating or deactivating speech. a peg placed in the head may cause speechlessness, loss of memory and lack of awareness, meanwhile a peg placed in the  chest is said to promote well-being and calming of the heart. a peg placed in the thighs or buttocks may lead to immobility or  incapacity of movement. secured to the arms, pegs may stop another’s offensive action. double heads are an important characteristic, they are aimed at individuals and their doubles who may return after death.

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
fon vodun sculpture, benin (30 x 18 x 17 cm)
wood, rope, bones, duck skull, metal, terracotta, shells, beads, feathers, cloth, hair, plants
collection michel propper
photo © yuji ono

 

 

swollen or pregnancy bocio include various bulges, humps or mounds of material, attached to various parts of the body. an anthropomorphic assemblage of materials such as ropes, bones, shells, and pottery, voodoo sculptures assume a critical role in the practice of this ancient religious cult, still active today from the coasts of togo to western nigeria. covered with a thick layer of matter includes earth, palm oil and powder, these strange and uncanny sculptures emanate qualities of tension and foreboding. their ambiguous aesthetics are closely linked to their role in both protecting their owners from danger and harming those responsible for their difficulties.

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
fon vodun object, benin (13.5 x 12 x 5 cm)
wood, duck skull and bill, lock, keys, cloth, feathers, clay, sacrificial patina
collection anne and jacques kerchache
photo © yuji ono

 

 

‘depending on the clan or family origins of the local informant, the statue will have different meanings and its attributions will be as variable as the homogeneity of the group observed. since myths change, the interpretation of a myth will also change.  in this area, nothing is definitive. an object in africa is as mutable as the spoken word and african sculptures are a support for the word.’ jacques kerchache

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
fon vodun sculpture, benin (19 x 7.5 x 6 cm)
bronze, rope, locks, key, mica, beads, clay, sacrificial patina
collection anne and jacques kerchache
photo © yuji ono

 

 

this little bronze monkey reminded jacques kerchache of a sculpture by picasso – ‘monkey and her baby’, 1952

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
enzo mari
portrait © designboom

 

 

the scenography of the exhibition has been conceived by the italian designer enzo mari.

 

‘I often felt as if I were to plan an exhibition of medicine. in the same manner as I imagine a person from benin would investigate on our aspirin and penicillin. each of these objects has a curative, restorative function and these statuettes as well as their components function as a grammar. the rope, a recurring attribute, affects the part of the body it’s wrapped around, etc…each object is invested with a special power related to the different materials used by the vodun priests. I noticed that these statues are less interesting as objects of formal beauty than as objects of medicine.’– enzo mari

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
image © designboom

 

 

on the lower level there is a dark room with 48 columns. it is the most important room, where the visitor enters into the mystery  found within the houses (see part 1 of our coverage – the village). while the use of these objects is unknown, we do know that they are remedies to improve life. ‘I thought it would be interesting to place all the smaller objects at eye level to avoid an accumulative effect.’ — enzo mari

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
drawings by enzo mari
from left to right: the floorplan of the third room with two columns for bigger showcases and the water basin that sourrounds the carriage of death, a single column of the second room with 48 of them

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
48 columns
image © designboom

 

 

then comes dreams, delirium, death and its allegory. in the third room on the lower level the chariot of death emerges from the dark waters of a basin, just as jacques kerchache had imagined the presentation of this work. ‘and this is how the journey of this exhibition, of imagination ends… it ends with death.’ — enzo mari

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
the ‘chariot’ / carriage of the death
images © designboom

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
the carriage of the death
photo © yuji ono

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
detail of the carriage of the death
photo © yuji ono

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
a showcase with bla-bocio (whose surface have been bound tightly with cord)
image © designboom

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
image © designboom

'vodun' african voodoo objects at fondation cartier
jacques kerchache

 

 

‘for the primitive arts and most notably for vodun, there is jacques kerchache and only him.’  andré malraux

 

an artistic advisor and curator of exhibitions, jacques kerchache was a strong advocate of the primitive arts, promoting their entry into important french museum collections. it was under his initiative that the pavillon des sessions was created at the louvre in 2001, as well as the musée du quai branly in 2006. jacques kerchache also collaborated with the fondation cartier on many occasions, first on the thematic exhibitions à visage découvert (1992) and être nature (1998) as well as on the solo show of the haitian artist patrick vilaire in réflexion sur la mort (1997).

 

following these collaborations, jacques kerchache and the fondation cartier considered organizing an exhibition on voodoo  statuary, but this project was postponed after his passing in 2001. on the tenth anniversary of his death the fondation cartier  uncovers the fascinating and secret world of voodoo that was jacques kerchache’s lifelong passion. through the vodun exhibition,  the fondation cartier thus pays homage to this great expert and explorer known for his exacting eye, a connoisseur of both primitive and contemporary art.

 

a catalog published by the fondation cartier for the vodun exhibition benefits from the contribution of suzanne preston blier, gabin djimassé, marc augé and the haitian artist patrick vilaire.

 

please see also designboom’s first part of coverage of this exhibition and a video interview with enzo mari on the topic of ‘voodoo’, ‘medicine’, ‘tools of divine intervention’ and ‘beauty’. soon to be published.

 

general curators: anna douaoui, hervé chandès
curators: grazia quaroni and leanne sacramone, assisted by philippine legrand and anna milone
exhibition design: enzo mari
lighting design: julia kravtsova and vyara stefanova (conception), nicolas tauveron (realization)

Sours: https://www.designboom.com/art/vodun-african-voodoo-at-fondation-cartier/
The Voodoo Rituals of Benin - Beyond Human Boundaries - TRACKS

They smacked, hugged and remembered me. Natasha decided to introduce me to her friends first. Officially: Alexander Sergeevich, these are my friends Christina and Alena.

Statues african voodoo

I say, bring your daughter, if youre embarrassed, me or a baby I will put on, or a mask. She promised to talk to her daughter. Moreover, I have both lubricants for anal sex, and methods so as not to harm the girl. I called in the evening that my daughter agreed, they will come this afternoon We were at a friend's wedding.

I got drunk and my wife, she was 26 years old, took me home by taxi.

The Mysterious Voodoo Communities Of Benin - Beyond Human Boundaries S1 EP5 - Wonder

Laughed drunkenly. - What kind of life is this. Wine, cigarettes, cafes, men.

Now discussing:

Of course, I followed them. I cleaned the next room, so I crept onto the balcony behind her back and spied on our room, the balcony was shared. Well, he kissed yours, hugged yours. Then he pressed on your shoulders from above, and she obediently knelt down. The chef unbuttoned your fly and gave it to her.



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