Ortega-Garcia L., Tabone E., Beaudoin-Ollivier L., Ment D., Buradino M., Jaques J.A., Garrido-Jurado I., Dembilio O., Quesada Moraga E.. 2017. In : Soroker Victoria (ed.), Colazza Stefano (ed.). Handbook of major palm pests: biology and management. Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell, p. 171-186.
Biological control of insect pests consists of the beneficial action of entomophagous predators and parasitoids, and entomopathogenic microorganisms (protozoa, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, and viruses) in controlling pest populations. There are three biological pest control strategies: classical biological control, conservation, and augmentation. Because Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (red palm weevil, RPW) and Paysandisia archon (palm borer moth, PBM) are invasive species in a large area, it could be hypothesized that the only feasible and suitable biocontrol method is classical biological control, defined as ¿the intentional introduction of an exotic biological control agent for permanent establishment and long-term pest control¿ (Eilenberg, Hajek, and Lomer 2001). Unfortunately, there are few reports on parasitoids and predators of these two palm pests in their native areas, probably because they do not cause important damage in those areas. RPW eggs, larvae, and adults are preys of the black earwig Chelisoches morio (Fabr.) (Dermaptera: Chelisochidae). The common blackbird (Turdus merula L.), the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L.), and the common magpie (Pica pica L.) have also been described to feed on adults and larvae of PBM and RPW. In addition, some mammals, such as bats and rats, can be occasional predators of adults of both the weevil and the moth. However, the practical use of mammals, reptiles, and birds in classical biological control is limited. There is some parasitization of R. ferrugineus larvae by the large wasp Scolia erratica Smith and by the calliphorid fly Sarcophaga fuscicauda Bottcher, but again, they do not play a significant role in limiting the pest populations. Laboratory experiments performed with several strains of Trichogramma have shown this parasitoid's potential for PBM egg control. Among entomopathogenic microorganisms, the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) showed low activity against RPW larvae in laboratory assays. An unidentified species of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus group has been reported to infect all stages of RPW, with laboratory infections of late instars resulting in the development of malformed adults. Natural infections of RPW by the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema have been occasionally recorded, but inundative release of commercial strains of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) produced inconsistent data. Recent studies have revealed the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in weevil and moth populations throughout the Mediterranean Basin, and the efficacy of several indigenous strains of Beauveria sp. and Metarhizium sp. against larvae of both species and adults of RPW has been ascertained under laboratory and field conditions using different approaches. (Résumé d'auteur)
Mots-clés : rhynchophorus ferrugineus; castniidae; phoenix dactylifera; lutte biologique; lutte antiravageur; agent de lutte biologique; oiseau; rat; chiroptera; champignon entomopathogène; bacillus thuringiensis; trichogramma; pseudomonas aeruginosa; parasitoïde; micro-organisme; ravageur des plantes; région méditerranéenne; paysandisia archon
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Pro Players and Amateur Archons
You might think that if you take two great StarCraft players and have them split their responsibilities in Legacy of the Void's Archon Mode — which lets two players play as a team controlling a single side — you would end up with one super-player. Think of the impossible maneuvering and timing that players could pull off together! Think of the perfect base and economy management that would be happening in the background!
But if Friday's Archon Mode showmatches were any indication, theory and practice are still separated by a steep learning curve. Archon Mode offers a whole lot of new possibilities for StarCraft and the potential for unheard-of efficiency…but they come with a bundle of fresh ways to screw everything up.
No Margin for Error
The first match of the day was a Protoss vs. Protoss between MaNa-PartinG and puCK-Pig, and if we learned anything from it, it's that the new Protoss infantry unit, the Adept, has emerged as the unlikely star of the Legacy of the Void Beta. Both team leaned heavily on Adepts throughout their series to provide sustained damage and deadly positioning during engagements. The Adepts' ranged damage and Psionic Transfer ability (basically, to project a ghost of itself onto the map that can move freely, with the option to warp to that ghost's location) are giving the Adept tremendous and unexpected versatility.
But get it wrong, as MaNa and PartinG did at first, and Archon Mode can amplify the effect of any mistakes or advantages you surrender to your opponent. An early attack by PartinG and and MaNa's Red Archon side ran headlong into four Adepts from puCK and PiG, who insta-killed the intruders and suddenly enjoyed a significant early-game advantage. Indeed, the unforced error by the Red side effectively knocked them out of the game, as Blue maintained and expanded their lead.
Red attempted to use the Protoss Disruptor (a reusable suicide bomber, basically) to level the playing field, but the uncanny micro of Blue's Archon play neutralized the powerful new Protoss unit. A crucial detonation was blocked by Blue's Immortals using their Barrier ability with split-second perfection, letting them eat the Disruptor damage without getting a scratch. It was an example of how minutely Archon mode allows teams to control their armies in battle.
StarCraft as It's Meant to Be Played?
It also explained one reason why Legacy of the Void may have such an intense focus on micro-play. Blizzard's decision to push StarCraft's legendary complexity, which asks players to keep dozens of plates spinning in the air, even further makes a lot more sense if you approach Archon Mode as the new default mode for more casual players. Things like the Immortal Barrier, the Disruptor, and the Cyclone are a lot less intimidating when so many players will be able to share control of them with their friends.
But being a good Archon proved to be a different skill from being a good StarCraft player. Pig and puCK lost their Game 5 against MaNa and PartinG because neither of them reacted to a lone Oracle that was wreaking havoc on their worker count.
It was like watching two outfielders both miss a fly ball: either one of them could have handled the attack, but somehow, neither of them tuned-in to the fact that their workers (20 of them!) were being slaughtered until they'd finished managing a skirmish on their front door.
Likewise, qxc and Beastyqt had a game slip away from them because they were getting so fancy with their Siege Tanks, lifting and dropping them with their Medivacs, that they ended-up lowering their overall damage output and enabled a successful charge by slow Banelings by Scarlett and HuK. As we saw again and again during the showmatches, just because you can do something in Archon Mode and Legacy of the Void doesn't mean you should.
Of course, if you think you can do better, then registration is open for Red Bull Battle Grounds Archon Tournament qualifiers. The first qualifier takes place alongside the WCS Finals in Toronto this weekend, from June 26-28, and gives aspiring Archons a chance to compete at the Battle Grounds final in Washington, DC on September 19.
For more StarCraft 2 coverage, follow @RedBullESPORTS on Twitter.
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Pro Tips for Being a Better Archon
"It's a lot about trust, actually," said Chris "HuK" Loranger, when he tried to explain the different mindset of playing StarCraft 2 in Archon Mode. "Because it's like you're trusting someone to do something the way you would want it to be done."
StarCraft pros have learned to excel at an extraordinarily solitary and demanding game. While there are teams and organizations that boast large rosters of players, the reality of the pro game to date is one of endless one-on-one trials by combat. If you make a mistake, you pay for it. If you win, all the glory belongs to you. But one thing is not in doubt: it's all down to you.
Archon Mode turns that on its head by re-inventing StarCraft as a team game. Perhaps even more than multiplayer melees, Archon Mode forces players to adapt to something completely different: relyon someone else.
That doesn't come naturally at first.
"I think every partnership that plays, they go through the first week or so playing of together just making sure that they're on the same page," HuK said. "That they know what each other's jobs are and trust each other."
The worst thing an Archon pairing can do, he explained, is start fighting over units or responsibilities. The moment they start baby-sitting each other, or grabbing control of units that the other player is trying to micro, you've gone from having two good players to one bad one.
"So you have to trust that your partner is going to do her job and you'll do your job and you'll cohesively win the game," HuK said. "And without that basic trust of knowing where each other is at in the game, it's a struggle."
Kim "viOLet" Dong Hwan agreed. "There's no hard pressure about the game, because we can choose what position we want: macro or micro. But also, I need to believe in my team, because even if my teammate does micro… if you don't trust each other, you'll both micro at the same time."
HuK's Archon partner at the Red Bull Battle Grounds qualifier in Toronto was Sasha "Scarlett" Hostyn, where they were runners-up to viOLet and Maru "MaSa" Kim. At one point, during a playoff round, Scarlett told HuK he should just sit out a game and let her win it for them. But while it looked like Scarlett had put HuK in a corner, he stressed that they were just putting on a good show.
"I was like, 'Do you want me to make it more dramatic and literally just not touch the keyboard?' And she was like, 'Yeah, that'd be cool!' So I did. And then someone gave me the boomsticks and I was cheering her on. Unfortunately, we actually lost that game," he said. "It was unfortunate, I would say, that happened. But all in all, she was really trying to troll."
In the end, it took both of them to get through to the final. But as HuK explained, their Archon-ship works because in the end, they do like and respect each other.
"Outside of the game we are friends. We talk," he said. "And even if we lose, and it's her fault or my fault, of course you'll get a little upset. I've made mistakes, she's made mistakes, that have caused us to lose. But at the end of the day, we get along. I don't hold it against her, she doesn't hold it against me."
Goodwill only gets you so far. A winning Archon duo needs to be greater than the sum of its parts, and that requires recognizing what each player brings to the team.
MaSa and viOLet have a dynamic partnership that is as much about erasing each other's weaknesses as it is about playing to their strengths.
"It's not just one job in the game," viOLet said. "[MaSa's] main [race] is Terran. I'm Zerg. He's better at macro, so I let him do that… but [in the] late game, I don't have much experience controlling a 200-supply Terran army. But I do know late game macro. So we switch in the late game."
HuK and Scarlett split the labor along more conventional lines.
"I'm very good at micro, and Scarlett is very good at picking build orders, and [managing] macro as well as creep spread. So those things complement each other very well," he said. "I think in general it's going to be that split. But at the same time, it also depends on race. For me, playing Zerg, I'm not a good off-racer. I don't play Terran or Zerg that often. So giving me some units and saying, 'Just micro these'? I can do that. That's a universal thing. But picking build orders or strategies, I have no idea what I'm doing. That's Scarlett."
Archon play is developing quickly alongside the Red Bull Battle Grounds tournament, with the level of play and performance increasing every week. Now that the ice is broken, we're starting to see the true power of good Archon teams.
By the time of the Battle Grounds playoffs next month in Santa Monica, the standards of Archonship could be much higher than we've seen before, and maybe even friendship and trust won't be enough to get good teams to the Grand Final in Washington, D.C.
For more StarCraft 2 coverage, follow @RedBullESPORTS on Twitter.
The Dark Archon is a Protoss spell-caster that does not have the ability to attack directly. Rather, it is a supporting Protoss unit that is capable of three powerful spells. It is formed by merging two Dark Templars, which are produced by the Gateway.
Because of its high cost, both in terms of minerals/Vespene Gas as well as the loss of two powerful Dark Templars, and its limited abilities, they are not commonly produced during competitive play. Rather, they are produced for relatively specific applications in the late game.
Range: 10 Effect-Radius: 3Duration: 7.48 s
Cost:150 All Available
Occasionally, Dark Archons with a fast Maelstrom can be used as a counter to Zerg Mutalisk Harass. This freezes Mutalisks in place while Psionic Storms, Archons, or Corsairs deals damage to them. To maintain mobility, as well as to keep the vulnerable Dark Archon protected, a Dark Archon and Archon can be stored in a Shuttle to quickly reach the Mutalisk stack, followed by with Maelstrom.
Dark Archons are also occasionally seen in long PvZ matches. Supported and defended by a combination of Archons, High Templars, Reavers, and Zealots, the Dark Archon is safe to cast its spells against late game Zerg armies. Maelstrom can effectively freeze packs of concentrated and fast-moving Zerg units such as Ultralisks, Zerglings, and Overlords preparing for drop-play while dealing them damage with Psionic Storms and other Protoss units.
Less commonly, Dark Archons are used to Feedback Defilers, often killing them instantly with their own energy as Defilers are often kept at high energy levels due to the Consume spell.
Mind Control isn't used as extensively as the other two spells, but can serve some utility in taking control of high value Zerg units such as Ultralisks or Defilers. It is noted that any Mind Controlled Overlords will result in the Protoss player controlling any Zerg units transported by the Overlord.
For an extensive discussion on Dark Archon use in the modern PvZ match-up, see this Teamliquid thread.
Dark Archons are usually not used in the PvT match-up as their spells are not particularly useful against most common Terran strategies.
Maelstrom is ineffective against mechanical units. Mind Control, however, can be used should the Terran opponent elect to produce Battlecruisers.
It is noted the Dark Archon is part of the rarely played Royal Stove strategy, which is used to Mind Control an SCV and eventually tech to Factories so that the Protoss player can recall Sieged Tanks.
Although rarely seen in the PvP match-up, Dark Archons may use Feedback to counter the opponent's High Templars. Because the Feedback spell can be cast at a very long range, it can be used to snipe High Templars, such that the High Templar's own energy is used against itself.
In other applications, Mind Control can be used to steal away units of high value such as Carriers or Arbiters. It is noted that any Mind Controlled opponent Shuttles will result in the opponent losing control of any units transported by the Shuttle.
The Return of the Archons
21st episode of the first season of Star Trek: The Original Series
"The Return of the Archons" is the twenty-first episode of the first season of the American science fiction television series Star Trek. Written by Boris Sobelman (based on a story by Gene Roddenberry), and directed by Joseph Pevney, it first aired on February 9, 1967.
In the episode, the crew of the Enterprise visit a seemingly peaceful planet whose inhabitants are "of the Body", are controlled by an unseen ruler, and enjoy a night of violence during "festival".
The episode contains Star Trek's first reference to the Prime Directive.
The USS Enterprise, under the command of Captain Kirk, arrives at the planet Beta III in the C-111 system where the USS Archon was reported lost nearly 100 years earlier.Lt. Sulu is the only member of the landing party who beams up from the planet's surface, and exhibits inexplicable euphoria. Kirk beams down with another party to investigate. They find the inhabitants living in a 19th-century Earth-style culture, ruled over by cloaked and cowled "Lawgivers" and a reclusive dictator, Landru. Their arrival is shortly followed by the "Festival", a period of violence, destruction, and sexual aggression.
Kirk's landing party seeks shelter from the mob at a boarding house owned by Reger. A friend of Reger's suspects that the visitors are "not of the Body" (the whole of Betan society), and summons Lawgivers. When the landing party refuses to come with the Lawgivers, the Lawgivers become immobile. Reger leads the Enterprise landing team to a hiding place. En route, a telepathic command causes the townspeople to attack the landing party. They stun the attackers with their phasers, and find Lt. O'Neill, the other member of the original landing party, among them. They take O'Neill with them but keep him sedated at Reger's advice. Reger reveals that Landru "pulled the Archons down from the skies". Contacting the ship, Kirk learns that heat beams from the planet are attacking the Enterprise, which must use all its power for its shields. Its orbit is deteriorating and it will crash in 12 hours unless the beams are turned off.
A projection of Landru appears in the hiding place, and Kirk and his team are rendered unconscious by ultrasonic waves. The landing party is imprisoned in a dungeon. Dr. Leonard McCoy is "absorbed into the Body", i.e. placed under Landru's mental control, but Marplon, a member of the underground against Landru, rescues Kirk and Spock. Reger and Marplon tell how Landru saved their society from war and anarchy 6,000 years ago and reduced the planet's technology to a simpler level.
Overhearing their whispered plans, McCoy summons the Lawgivers. Kirk and Spock subdue them and don their robes. Marplon takes Kirk and Spock to the Hall of Audiences, where priests commune with Landru. A projection of Landru appears and threatens them. Kirk and Spock use their phasers to blast through the wall and expose a computer programmed by Landru, who died 6,000 years ago. The computer neutralizes their phasers. Kirk and Spock argue that because the computer has destroyed the creativity of the people by disallowing their free will, it is evil and should self-destruct, freeing the people of Beta III. The computer complies.
The heat beams stop, and the Enterprise is saved. Kirk agrees to leave Federation advisors and educators on the planet to help reform the civilization.
The Earth ship which crashed a century earlier was named Archon (Greek: "ruler, leader") after a student group Roddenberry belonged to ("the Archons").
"The Return of the Archons" was the first appearance in Star Trek for actor Charles Macaulay. He later appeared as Jaris, ruler of Argelius II, in the second-season episode "Wolf in the Fold". This was actor Jon Lormer's second appearance on Star Trek. He had previously appeared as Dr. Theodore Haskins in the episode "The Menagerie" and would make a third appearance as an unnamed old man in the third-season episode "For the World Is Hollow and I Have Touched the Sky". David L. Ross made his third appearance on Star Trek in this episode, after having appeared as a security guard in the episodes "Miri" and as a transporter chief in "The Galileo Seven" earlier in the first season. He received his first speaking role as Lieutenant Johnson in the second season episode "The Trouble with Tribbles", and appeared in another speaking role as Lt. Galloway in the second season episode "The Omega Glory".Character actorSid Haig has an uncredited role as one of the hooded Lawgivers who first confront the landing party in Reger's boarding house.
"The Return of the Archons" introduces for the first time the Federation's Prime Directive. However, an important modification is made to the absolutist non-interference rule almost immediately. Kirk argues that the Prime Directive does not bar interference with other cultures, but rather bars interference only with a "living and growing" culture. Scholar Eric Greene argues this is reflective of the "frontier myth" of Star Trek and American foreign policy in the late 20th century, in which a superior culture expands to impose its understanding of freedom and progress on others. M. Keith Booker, interpreting the politics of Star Trek, agrees, noting that in leaving behind a sociological team to "help restore the planet's culture to a more human form" means restoring it to one that "suits the values of the Federation and twenty-third century Earth." Indeed, the Prime Directive would only truly be honored during the series in the episode "Bread and Circuses".
Location shooting for "Return of the Archons" occurred on the 40 Acres backlot in Culver City, California. The street scenes were part of the "Town of Atlanta", a set which consists of a mid-1800s city street, a town square, and a residential area (originally constructed for the motion picture Gone with the Wind in 1939). The dungeon set was first constructed for this episode, and reused in the first-season episode "Errand of Mercy" and the second-season episode "Catspaw". Marplon's absorption booth console was also reused several times in the series. It reappeared (with modifications) as a relay station in the second-season episode "I, Mudd", as a Federation outpost control panel in the third-season episode "The Lights of Zetar", the housing for the Romulan cloaking device in the third-season episode "The Enterprise Incident", and as the force field control station at the penal colony Elba II in the third-season episode "Whom Gods Destroy". The computer that ruled Beta III would be seen again (slightly modified) in the first-season episode "A Taste of Armageddon". The doors to the Hall of Audiences were a reuse of doors previously seen in the episode "What Are Little Girls Made Of?" and would be reused in "A Taste of Armageddon".
The episode contains two errors. When the "Festival" breaks out, the mob begins hurling stones at the landing party. A large "rock" made of papier-mâché accidentally hits one of the Enterprise security personnel in the head. The actor stayed in character and kept running to ensure that the take was not ruined. When the landing party rests in a bedroom at Reger's boarding house, the windows are blacked out in all wide shots, but clearly transparent and showing the street outside in all close-ups.
Eric Greene observes that "Return of the Archons" is the first time Star Trek attempted to deal with issues of war and peace raised by the Vietnam War, and established a template that would be used in a number of subsequent episodes such as "A Taste of Armageddon", "This Side of Paradise", and "For the World Is Hollow and I Have Touched the Sky". The Federation's moral superiority is exhibited through its emphasis on individual freedom, progress, and resort to violence only in self-defense, while the Betan society is criticized for its state control, stagnation, and reliance on aggression. Greene argues that these episodes prefigure the Borg Collective, a far more overt totalitarian (even Soviet) metaphor introduced in the series Star Trek: The Next Generation. Scholar M. Keith Booker notes that the episode presents Kirk "at his most American", valuing struggle against obstacles as the highest virtue and denouncing the Betan utopia (equated with Stalinism) as dehumanizing.
Scholars Michael A. Burstein and John Kenneth Muir note that the plot of "The Return of the Archons" (in which Kirk and company discover a stagnant society worshiping a god-like being whom Kirk destroys with human illogic) became something of a cliché in the decades after the series ended. Burstein criticizes the episode for attacking organized religion, which it presented as suppressing freedom and creativity. But religious scholar Michael Anthony Corey praises the episode for realizing that the elimination of a huge number of moral evils can occur only by causing a single, massive moral evil (the loss of free will). Corey points out that the episode seems to draw heavily on German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz's "Principle of Radical Optimism", which concludes that ours is the best of all possible worlds because it contains the conditions for human existence (and not because it has a greater or lesser number of moral evils).
Zack Handlen of The A.V. Club gave the episode a "B" rating, describing the episode as having a "loose, unpolished feeling" and lacking "the force of the series' best story lines", but praised the story's ambition.
"Return of the Archons" is one of actor Ben Stiller's favorite episodes of Star Trek. "Red Hour", the time of day when the "Festival" begins, is the name of his production company.
This was noted as one of the episodes of Star Trek that does not have a traditional villain, and noted that computers gone wrong as a villain might be expected in a technologically advanced culture as depicted by Star Trek.
The "Festival" in this episode served as the inspiration behind the 2013 film The Purge, and the subsequent media franchise it spawned.
- ^Okuda, Okuda, and Mirek, p. 2493.
- ^Okuda, Okuda, and Mirek, p. 1305.
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- ^ abHinman, Michael. "Does 'The Purge' Sound Familiar? It Should." 1701News.com. June 15, 2013.Archived January 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Accessed January 15, 2014.
- ^ abGreene, p. 65.
- ^ abBooker, p. 204.
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- ^Okuda, Okuda, and Mirek, p. 1835.
- ^Farrand, pp. 128-129.
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- ^ abGreene, p. 64.
- ^Greene, pp. 64-65.
- ^Booker, p. 205.
- ^ abBurstein, p. 92.
- ^Muir, p. 44.
- ^Corey, pp. 138-139.
- ^Corey, p. 139.
- ^Handlen, Zack (March 27, 2009). ""The Return Of The Archons" / "A Taste Of Armageddon"". The A.V. Club. Retrieved May 28, 2009.
- ^Cipriani, Casey (2016-07-27). "What 'Star Trek 4' Could Learn From These 'Star Trek' Episodes". Bustle. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
- ^Vaux, Robert (June 22, 2021). "Star Trek: How a Classic TOS Episode Influenced The Purge". CBR. Archived from the original on September 7, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
- ^Faraci, Devin (June 6, 2013). "The Purge Director Admits Which Star Trek Episode Influenced His Movie."BirthMoviesDeath.com. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- Booker, M. Keith (2008). Telotte, J.P. (ed.). "The Politics of 'Star Trek'". The Essential Science Fiction Television Reader. Lexington, Ky: University Press of Kentucky.
- Burstein, Michael (2006). Gerrold, David; Sawyer, Robert J. (eds.). "We Find the One Quite Adequate: Religious Attitudes in 'Star Trek'". Boarding the Enterprise: Transporters, Tribbles, and the Vulcan Death Grip in Gene Roddenberry's 'Star Trek'. Dallas, Tex.: BenBella Books.
- Corey, Michael Anthony (1995). Job, Jonah, and the Unconscious: A Psychological Interpretation of Evil and Spiritual Growth in the Old Testament. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.
- Farrand, Phil (2010). The Nitpicker's Guide for Classic Trekkers. New York: Random House.
- Greene, Eric (2006). Gerrold, David; Sawyer, Robert J. (eds.). "The Prime Question". Boarding the Enterprise: Transporters, Tribbles, and the Vulcan Death Grip in Gene Roddenberry's 'Star Trek'. Dallas, Tex.: BenBella Books.
- Muir, John Kenneth (2005). Exploring Space, 1999: An Episode Guide and Complete History of the Mid-1970s Science Fiction Television Series. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co.
- Okuda, Michael; Okuda, Denise; Mirek, Debbie (2011). The Star Trek Encyclopedia. New York: Simon and Schuster.
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I watched her as she sat immensely on me, beautifully moving her buttocks. I could see every movement of my penis in her vagina. She skillfully and while not touching her hands caught the penis with her fragrant flower at the moment of his exit from there. I do not know how long it lasted.