Ecu works

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ECUWORKS

Pilot program lets students work for their rooms

Published May 28, 2019 by
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During the 2018-19 academic year, East Carolina University launched a pilot program aimed at reducing student debt. Campus Living’s ECUWorks program gives first-year students the opportunity to work on campus in exchange for room and board rather than a paycheck.

Edward Jones is one of 38 students who participated in the first year of the ECUWorks program.

Brian Mattern, associate director for finance at ECU Campus Living, said the idea came about in 2017 as the department’s associate vice chancellor, Bill McCartney, was looking at ways to help save students money. Based on models used at other institutions, the ECUWorks program is designed to be mutually beneficial.

“Nothing is free, so we wanted to find a way to (reduce the cost for students) while also getting something back for the department,” Mattern said.

Students work about 15 hours a week in campus jobs with Campus Living, ECU Dining Services and ECU Facilities Services. They also participate in targeted programming aimed at increasing engagement and student success. The sessions include topics such as academic skills, sustainability, wellness and lifestyle, and stress management.

Edward Jones, one of 38 students who participated in the program’s first-year run, has stayed on for the summer, working in the Neighborhood Service Office (NSO) on College Hill. Students who participate in the program are able to return the following year if they are still going to live on campus, and nearly half of the first group has elected to do so, Mattern said.

For Jones, the program allowed him to live on campus rather than commuting an hour each way.

“This opportunity saved me in the sense that I really wanted to stay on campus for the community,” he said.

Jones said ECUWorks has helped him build friendships with other participants thanks to the introduction dinner and the group programming. The program also helped Jones develop time management skills early on in his academic career.

“It was really hard to balance work and class at first, especially since I did not choose my first semester’s classes,” he said. “Second semester was better for managing work and school. I had to plan my schedule a little better and spread out my involvement.”

Jones, who hails from Duplin County and is studying music with a focus on voice, hopes to become a choral director and voice teacher.

Students in the ECUWorks program work for about 15 hours per week and participate in targeted programming in exchange for free housing on campus.

Mattern said he’s excited to have Jones and other students returning to help guide next year’s participants.

“They’ve got the best understanding of this experience because they’re the only people who have ever been through it,” he said. “We thought they’d be a great resource with these new students to help them with the transition.”

Having student workers who live on campus is also beneficial during weather events.

“When we have a snowstorm,” Mattern said, “there’s no commute; they’re already here.”

So far, he said the ECUWorks participants have fit seamlessly with both paid employees and other student workers.

“A lot of what I hear is that they love the experience and they love the staff members that they’ve had an opportunity to work with, whether it’s over in dining working with the Aramark employees or in the NSO working alongside our student employees,” Mattern said. “There’s really been a good sense of camaraderie and kinship both among each other and with others.”

Even some of those who aren’t planning to live on campus next year have expressed interest in continuing to work for Campus Living as student employees, he said, leading to opportunities for them to stay engaged with campus life.

“If we bring them in as freshmen,” said Mattern, “hopefully by junior or senior year they still want to be a part of our department … and they’re already experienced and have gotten that training at a younger age.”

The biggest value in the program, Mattern said, may be the opportunity to get students involved on campus as soon as they arrive.

“This program helped me realize all that ECU has to offer,” Jones said. “It solidified my love of my school and made me desire to work within ECU for the rest of my college career.”

For more information, visit https://campusliving.ecu.edu/ecu-works/.

Almost half of the students from the first year of ECUWorks, including Edward Jones, have elected to remain in the program for their sophomore years.

Sours: https://news.ecu.edu/2019/05/28/ecuworks/

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Welcome to ECUAWard.

This is East Carolina University’s on-line scholarship application portal. Completion of the General Scholarship Application on this portal will allow interested students access to a variety of scholarship opportunities on our campus. ECU holds an annual process and our opportunities begin opening in August. Additional opportunities may open each month throughout the academic year. If an opportunity currently says ENDED in the Action column, it may not have opened yet for this cycle. Note that many of our opportunities for incoming students will open on August 1 with the start of our annual Admissions process. Campus based opportunities for existing students tend to open on November 1 each year. You may start your application before the opportunities open as your application is live from the moment you start it until the opportunities close at the end of the cycle and can be updated and amended throughout the fall semester.

The fully completed General Scholarship Application is the only form a student has to fill out to be considered for opportunities that are designated as “auto-match”. These opportunities have pre-determined qualifiers in place that allow the system to “auto-match” applicants to these opportunities. Auto-match opportunities typically say NONE in the Actions column and have the following statement in their description: You will be automatically considered based on your completed General Scholarship Application. Applying and qualifying does not guarantee that you will receive a scholarship.

Additional opportunities that are noted with “apply” in the Action column will require supplemental information from the applicant in order for an application to be considered. If you click on the name of the opportunity, the system will show the additional information/questions that have to be answered/provided in order to apply for this opportunity. Applying and qualifying does not guarantee that you will receive a scholarship.

To view a list of opportunities for which an applicant may be eligible, please visit the Recommended Opportunities page on the applicant dashboard, review the opportunities and their requirements, and complete any supplemental questions or requirements.

Award notices are sent to applicants via ECU student email accounts. Notices begin going out in late February. Therefore, it is important for applicants to check their ECU email account regularly.

Note: Scholarship awards are subject to the availability of funds each year and annual award amounts may vary.

AwardNameActions
Varies The LGBTQ Legacy Project Essay Contest

“Coming out is the most political thing you can do.” - Harvey Milk Our stories are our history, each one a reflection of a life lived and a journey...

“Coming out is the most political thing you can do.” - Harvey Milk Our...
  • Deadline: 10/22/2021
  • Award: Varies
Deadline10/22/2021
Varies The Michael Bassman Study Abroad Scholarship

The Michael Bassman Study Abroad Scholarship is available to members of the ECU Honors College that do not already receive a Study Abroad travel...

The Michael Bassman Study Abroad Scholarship is available to members of...
  • Deadline: 11/15/2021
  • Award: Varies
Deadline11/15/2021
$2,000 The Graduate Security Studies Scholarship (R) (P)

This scholarship will be awarded to incoming graduate students pursuing either a Master of Science in Security Studies or a Graduate Certificate in...

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  • Deadline: 12/10/2021
  • Award: $2,000
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Varies The Honors College Scholarship for International Students

This scholarship opportunity is open to incoming international students that are interested in joining the ECU Honors College.

This scholarship opportunity is open to incoming international students...
  • Deadline: 12/15/2021
  • Award: Varies
Deadline12/15/2021
Varies The Abeyounis Family Scholarship (P)

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a full time graduate student. Student must have a 3.0 GPA or better. Financial...

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The AJ Threewitts Family Scholarship

This merit scholarship is for students from Robeson County, NC that are majoring in either Business or Computer Science. Projected GPA of 3.0 or...

This merit scholarship is for students from Robeson County, NC that are...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Alexandra G. Kittrell Scholarship

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This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is for Child...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,000 The Alliance One International Scholarship

This scholarship will be awarded to students that are the dependent children of full-time employees of Alliance One International. Second...

This scholarship will be awarded to students that are the dependent...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,000
Deadline01/15/2022
$5,000 The Allison and Gene Wright Scholarship

This scholarship is open to students in all majors with demonstrated financial need. First preference is for students from the following Florida...

This scholarship is open to students in all majors with demonstrated...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $5,000
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,000 The Alva Sawyer and Lee G. Williams Memorial Scholarship

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman or current student based on the following in order of priority: recipient must be working on...

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman or current student...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,000
Deadline01/15/2022
$5,000 The Archie Burnette Family Scholarship (Air Force ROTC)

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time student that is participating in the Air Force ROTC Program.

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time student that is participating...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $5,000
Deadline01/15/2022
$5,000 The Archie Burnette Scholarship (Army ROTC)

This scholarship is awarded to a full time student in the Army ROTC program for tuition, fee, books, housing or meals.

This scholarship is awarded to a full time student in the Army ROTC...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $5,000
Deadline01/15/2022
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This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,000 The B.G. Beacham Scholarship (Air Force ROTC)

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time student that is participating in the Air Force ROTC Program.

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time student that is participating...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,000
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,000 The B.G. Beacham Scholarship (Army ROTC)

This scholarship is awarded to a freshman or sophomore Army ROTC Cadet with a 3.0 GPA or higher.

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  • Award: $1,000
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$1,000 The Ballard S. and Genevieve H. Gay Scholarship

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with a projected GPA of 3.0 with preference given to graduation from a high school in...

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  • Award: $1,000
Deadline01/15/2022
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  • Award: $1,000
Deadline01/15/2022
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  • Award: $2,000
Deadline01/15/2022
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  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Belk Scholarship

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a full-time junior or senior Merchandising major with a minimum 3.0 GPA.

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Bessie McNeil Scholarship

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is open to undergraduate students. Applicants are judged based upon academic merit,...

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  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Betsy Markowski Interior Design Scholarship

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a declared Interior Design major. Applicants will be judged upon scholarship...

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
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This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with a projected GPA of 3.0, evidence of involvement in extracurricular activities and...

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with a projected GPA...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,000
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,500 The Beulah L. Raynor Scholarship

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with a projected GPA of 3.0 and is a resident of North Carolina.

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with a projected GPA...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,500
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,000 The Beulah Little Mason Awards Scholarship

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with a minimum high school GPA of 2.8 with preference given to qualified students who attended...

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with a minimum high...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,000
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,000 The Bill and Nancy Miller Scholarship (Air Force ROTC)

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time freshman or sophomore that is participating in the Air Force ROTC Program.

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time freshman or sophomore that is...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,000
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Bloxton-Strawn Scholarship

This scholarship is awarded to either an undergraduate or graduate student. Must have at least one year remaining in academic program. Applicants...

This scholarship is awarded to either an undergraduate or graduate...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,500 The Burgess Whitehurst Kopf Scholarship

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with demonstrated financial need and a projected GPA of 3.0.

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with demonstrated...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,500
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Burney and Judy Warren Study Abroad Scholarship

This scholarship is available to students in any major that are planning to study abroad in the summer term.

This scholarship is available to students in any major that are planning...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Captain Christopher Cash Memorial Scholarship (Air Force ROTC)

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time student that is participating in the Air Force ROTC Program. Must have a minimum GPA of 2.5.

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time student that is participating...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Captain Christopher Cash Memorial Scholarship (P)

This scholarship is awarded to students who are an active, or retired, member of the NC National Guard; or spouse, grandchild, or dependent of an...

This scholarship is awarded to students who are an active, or retired,...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,000 The Captain Christopher Cash Scholarship (Army ROTC)

This scholarship is awarded to an Army ROTC Cadet with a GPA of 3.0 or higher.

This scholarship is awarded to an Army ROTC Cadet with a GPA of 3.0 or...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,000
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Captain David "JP" Thompson (Army ROTC)

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time Junior ROTC Cadet who is selected as the Ranger Challenge Captain.

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time Junior ROTC Cadet who is...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Captain David L. Beveridge and Geraldine Mayo Beveridge Scholarship

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with demonstrated financial need and a projected GPA of 2.5 that is a graduate of Pamlico High...

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman with demonstrated...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Caroline Allen Scholarship

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a student majoring in Merchandising. Minimum GPA of 3.0. Must be in good...

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Carolyn Freeze Baynes Endowed Scholarship

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is awarded to a Social Work major with a minimum GPA of 3.0. Other criteria as deemed...

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is awarded to a...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,500 The Carolyn M. Cuddy Memorial Scholarship

This scholarship will be awarded to a full time incoming freshman based on academic merit with a projected 3.0 GPA and demonstrated financial need.

This scholarship will be awarded to a full time incoming freshman based...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $1,500
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Catherine A. Bolton Scholarship

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is give to a student that is a declared health fitness specialist major. Must demonstrate...

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is give to a...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
$2,500 The Catherine G. Fulcher Scholarship

This is a merit based scholarship for incoming freshmen that are graduates of East Carteret High School. Projected GPA of 3.0 is required.

This is a merit based scholarship for incoming freshmen that are...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $2,500
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Catherine Virginia McCulley Memorial Award for Exercise Physiology

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a full-time graduate kinesiology major with exercise physiology as a...

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,000 The Cathy Dreyer Chilton and Kevin Chilton Scholarship (Air Force ROTC)

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time student that is participating in the Air Force ROTC Program.

This scholarship is awarded to a full-time student that is participating...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
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Varies The Cecil P. Staton, Jr. And Catherine D. Staton Study Abroad Scholarship

This scholarship is available to students in any major that are planning to study abroad. Students should be planning to travel in the Summer term.

This scholarship is available to students in any major that are planning...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
$1,000 The Chall Ralph Little Scholarship

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman based on scholarship, citizenship and financial need.

This scholarship is awarded to an incoming freshman based on...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
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Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Charles A. Vincent Memorial Scholarship

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a full-time undergraduate declared recreation and leisure studies major....

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a...
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  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Christopher Scott Lambe Memorial Scholarship (Air Force ROTC)

This scholarship is open to students participating in the Air Force ROTC program at ECU. Recipients must be enrolled full-time.

This scholarship is open to students participating in the Air Force ROTC...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
$500 The Class of 1982 Scholarship

This scholarship will be awarded to a senior with a sound scholastic record, demonstrated financial need, and involvement in leadership activities...

This scholarship will be awarded to a senior with a sound scholastic...
  • Deadline: 01/15/2022
  • Award: $500
Deadline01/15/2022
Varies The Clay and Anne Walker Scholarship in Sports Management (P)

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a full-time graduate student majoring in kinesiology with a concentration in...

This College of Health and Human Performance scholarship is given to a...
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  • Award: Varies
Deadline01/15/2022
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This scholarship is awarded to a full-time student that is participating in the Air Force ROTC Program.

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$20,000 over 4 years The College of Education Community of Scholars Scholarship

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Varies The College of Health and Human Performance University Book Exchange Scholarship

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ECU - How it starts an engine

ECU Explained

What is an ECU?

The use of the term ECU may be used to refer to an Engine Control Unit, however ECU also refers to an Electronic Control Unit, which is a component of any automotive mechatronic system, not just for the control of an engine.

In the Automotive industry, the term ECU often refers to an Engine Control Unit (ECU), or an Engine Control Module (ECM). If this unit controls both an engine and a transmission, it is often described as a Powertrain Control Module (PCM).

For the purposes of this article, we will discuss the ECU as an Engine Control Unit.

What does an ECU do?

Fundamentally, the engine ECU controls the injection of the fuel and, in petrol engines, the timing of the spark to ignite it. It determines the position of the engine’s internals using a Crankshaft Position Sensor so that the injectors and ignition system are activated at precisely the correct time.  While this sounds like something that can be done mechanically (and was in the past), there’s now a bit more to it than that.

An internal combustion engine is essentially a big air pump that powers itself using fuel. As the air is sucked in, enough fuel has to be provided to create power to sustain the engine’s operation while having a useful amount left over to propel the car when required. This combination of air and fuel is called a ‘mixture’. Too much mixture and the engine will be full throttle, too little and the engine will not be able to power itself or the car.

Not only is the amount of mixture important, but the ratio of that mixture has to be correct. Too much fuel - too little oxygen, and the combustion is dirty and wasteful. Too little fuel - too much oxygen makes the combustion slow and weak.

Engines used to have this mixture quantity and ratio controlled by an entirely mechanical metering device called a carburetor, which was little more than a collection of fixed diameter holes (jets) through which the engine ‘sucked’ the fuel. With the demands of modern vehicles focusing on fuel efficiency and lower emissions, the mixture must be more tightly controlled.

The only way to meet these strict requirements is to hand over control of the engine to an ECU, the Engine Control Unit. The ECU has the job of controlling the fuel injection, ignition and ancillaries of the engine using digitally stored equations and numeric tables, rather than by analogue means.  

Precise fuel management

An ECU has to deal with many variables when deciding the correct mixture ratio.

  • Engine demand
  • Engine/Coolant temperature
  • Air temperature
  • Fuel temperature
  • Fuel quality
  • Varying filter restriction
  • Air pressure
  • Engine pumping efficiency

These require a number of sensors to measure such variables and apply them to logic in the programming of the ECU to determine how to correctly compensate for them.

An increase in engine demand (such as accelerating) will require an increase in the overall quantity of mixture. Because of the combustion characteristics of the fuels in use, it also requires a change in the ratio of this mixture. When you press the accelerator pedal, your throttle flap will open to allow more air in to the engine. The increase in airflow to the engine is measured by the Mass Air Flow sensor (MAF) so the ECU can change the amount of fuel that’s injected, keeping the mixture ratio within limits.

It doesn’t stop there. For best power levels and safe combustion, the ECU must change the ratio of the mixture and inject more fuel under full throttle than it would during cruising – this is called a ‘rich mixture’. Conversely, a fueling strategy or a fault that results in less than a normal quantity of fuel being injected would result in a ‘lean mixture’.

In addition to calculating the fueling based on driver demand, temperature has a considerable part to play in the equations used. Since petrol is injected as a liquid, evaporation has to occur before it will combust. In a hot engine, this is easy to manage, but in a cold engine the liquid is less likely to vapourise and more fuel must be injected to keep the mixture ratio within the correct range for combustion.

Flashback: Prior to the use of the ECU, this function was managed by a ‘choke’ on the carburetor. This choke was simply a flap that restricted the airflow into the carburetor increasing the vacuum at the jets to promote more fuel flow. This method was often inaccurate, problematic and required regular adjustment. Many were adjusted manually by the driver while driving.

The temperature of the air also plays a role in combustion quality in much the same way as the varying atmospheric pressure.  

Perfecting Combustion

Since a car engine spends most of its time at part throttle, the ECU concentrates on maximum efficiency in this area. The ideal mixture, where all of the injected fuel is combusted and all oxygen is consumed by this combustion, is known as ‘stoichiometric’ or often as ‘Lambda’. At stoichiometric conditions, Lambda = 1.0.

The Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (Lambda sensor, O2 Sensor, Oxygen Sensor or HEGO) measures the amount of oxygen left over after combustion. This tells the engine whether there is an excess of air in the mixture ratio – and naturally whether there is excessive or insufficient fuel being injected. The ECU will read this measurement, and constantly adjust the fuel quantity injected to keep the mixture as close to Lambda = 1.0 as possible. This is known as ‘closed loop’ operation, and is a major contribution to the advanced efficiency that comes from using engine ECUs.

Because of the strict emissions regulations now in force, there are many other systems on an engine that help to reduce fuel consumption and/or environmental impact. These include:

  • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
  • Catalytic converter and Selective Catalytic Reduction
  • Exhaust Air Injection Reaction (AIR)
  • Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)
  • Fuel Stratification
  • Exhaust Additive Injection (Such as AdBlue)
  • Evaporative emissions control (EVAP)
  • Turbocharging and supercharging
  • Hybrid powertrain systems
  • Variable Valvetrain Control (Such as VTEC or MultiAir)
  • Variable Intake Control

Each of the above systems affect engine operation in some way and as a consequence need to be under full control of the ECU.

How does an ECU work?

An ECU is often referred to as the ‘brain’ of the engine. It is essentially a computer, a switching system and power management system in a very small case. To perform even on a basic level, it has to incorporate 4 different areas of operation.

  • Input
    This typically includes temperature and pressure sensors, on/off signals and data from other modules within the vehicle and is how an ECU collects the information it needs to make decisions.
  • An example of an input would be a Coolant Temperature sensor, or an Accelerator Pedal Position sensor. Requests from the Antilock Brake System (ABS) module may also be considered, such as for the application of traction control.
  • Processing

Once the data has been collected by the ECU, the processor must determine output specifications, such as fuel injector pulse width, as directed by the software stored within the unit.

  • The processor not only reads the software to decide the appropriate output, it also records its own information, such as learned mixture adjustments and mileage.
  • Output
    The ECU can then perform an action on the engine, allowing the correct amount of power to control actuators precisely.
  • These can include controlling fuel injector pulse width, exact timing of the ignition system, opening of an electronic throttle body or the activation of a radiator cooling fan.
  • Power Management

The ECU has many internal power requirements for the hundreds of internal components to function correctly. In addition to this, in order for many sensors and actuators to work, the correct voltage has to be supplied by the ECU to components around the car. This could be just a steady 5 Volts for sensors, or over 200 Volts for the fuel injector circuits.

  • Not only does the voltage have to correct, but some outputs have to handle more than 30 Amps, which naturally creates a lot of heat. Thermal management is a key part of ECU design.

Basic ECU function

The first stage of ECU operation is in fact power management. This is where various voltages are regulated and the power-up of the ECU is handled. Most ECUs have sophisticated power management due to the variety of components inside, accurately regulating 1.8V, 2.6V, 3.3V, 5V, 30V and upto 250V all from the car’s 10-15V supply. The power management system also allows the ECU to have full control over when it powers itself down – i.e. not necessarily when you turn off the ignition switch.

Once the correct voltages are supplied, the microprocessors can begin to boot up. Here the main microprocessor reads software from the memory and performs a self-check. It then reads data from the numerous sensors on the engine and converts them into useful information. This information is often transmitted over the CANbus – your car’s internal computer network – to other electronic modules.

Once the main microprocessor has interpreted this information, it refers to the numeric tables or formulae within the software and activates outputs as required.

Example. Should the Crankshaft Position Sensor show the engine is about to reach maximum compression on one of the cylinders, it will activate a transistor for the relevant ignition coil. The aforementioned formula and tables within the software will cause the activation of this transistor to be delayed or advanced based on throttle position, coolant temperature, air temperature, EGR opening, mixture ratio and previous measurements showing incorrect combustion.

The operation of the main processor inside the ECU and the activation of many outputs is overseen by a monitoring microprocessor – essentially a second computer that makes sure the main computer is doing everything correctly. If the monitoring microprocessor is not happy with any aspect of the ECU, it has the power to reset the whole system or shut it down completely. The use of the monitoring processor became imperative with the application of drive-by-wire throttle control due to safety concerns should the main microprocessor develop a fault.

Diagnosis of an ECU and peripherals

The complexity of implementing all of this control, all of these inputs and all of these outputs requires relatively advanced self-diagnosis capability – traditional engine diagnosis becomes obsolete. The inputs and outputs of an ECU are individually monitored by the processor, often dozens of times a second, to ensure they’re within the tolerances set in the software. If a sensor reading falls outside of these tolerances for the pre-determined period of time, a fault is registered and a fault code stored for retrieval by the technician.

Fault Codes

When a fault code is stored in the memory, it usually results in some of the logic within the software being bypassed with reduced engine efficiency, albeit with the engine still being able to function on a basic level. In some circumstances, the self-diagnosis routine discovers a serious fault that either fundamentally prevents the engine from running, or shuts the engine down in the interest of safety.

With modern engine management, the first fault diagnosis step for a vehicle technician is to access fault codes from the ECU memory. These are often stored as 5 digit alphanumeric codes beginning with a P, B, C or a U, followed by 4 numbers. Details of these codes and their descriptions can be found here: OBDII Fault Codes

In addition to these codes, the technician can also view live sensor data through the diagnostic tool while the vehicle is running. This allows them to see a sensor reading that is incorrect, but not out of tolerance by enough of a margin to flag a fault code.

Electronic Throttle Control

Many people question the necessity of drive-by-wire throttle control. Introduced in the 90s, it is now fitted to almost every engine produced today, but what are the advantages over a traditional cable?

Until the 80s, most throttle/accelerator control was managed with a cable from the pedal to the carburettor. The idle speed was set by simply adjusting a screw to keep the throttle flap open slightly until the engine idled correctly. This simple method required regular adjustment of idle speed and was prone to deviation when an engine was cold or as various parts wore out.

In the 1980s, with the mainstream introduction of ECUs, electronic Idle Air Control valves were introduced which solved many of these issues, however the ECU was now controlling part of the airflow and yet all of the other components remained.

With efficiency of engine operation and efficiency in car assembly moving forward, electronic throttle control was introduced. This sped up the manufacture of a car (no stiff throttle cables passing through the firewall), it removed the need for an Idle Air Control valve and it allowed the engine ECU additional control over the engine for improved EGR function, improved control over engine shutdown and improved starting.

One important advantage of electronic throttle control is that the ECU can adjust the throttle angle during acceleration to compliment the actual airflow through the engine. This improves the speed at which the air passes through the intake and provides gains in torque and drivability. This is known as torque-mapping and is only possible with electronic throttle control.  

Adaptations

Modern vehicles are built to much tighter tolerances than those of the past, however they are still susceptible to manufacturing variation, mechanical wear and environmental aspects. As such, they are able to adapt to gradual changes in the operation of the engine.

Example. As an air filter gets blocked by dust, the ECU can start the engine running with a slightly reduced fuel injection quantity to compensate. This allows it to perform at peak efficiency from engine startup, rather than starting at factory levels and working towards the optimum mixture on each journey.  It does this by storing the Lambda values over previous journeys.

These adaptations apply not just to blocked air filters, but to many systems on an engine or transmission. As components in hydraulic systems wear, they require changes to the timing of solenoid activation to compensate. Similarly, as the engine wears throughout, the ability to be an air pump deteriorates slightly and the opening angle of the throttle flap will need to change to maintain correct idle speed.

The timeline of the ECU

1970s

ECUs started out simply controlling a couple of solenoids on carburetors to make them function more effectively. Some started controlling mixture at idle speeds.

1980s

With the introduction of fuel injection, the ECU took on a new role of being completely responsible for the fuel and ignition management of petrol engines.

Closed loop Lambda control was soon included and the ECU rapidly began a new era in engine efficiency.

1990s

The ECU was now handling vehicle security. It was also beginning to appear on Diesel engines, which played no small part in the success of the turbodiesel engine over the next couple of decades.

2000s

The adoption of Drive-by-Wire throttle control, turbocharger control and numerous emission systems all under the tight control of the ECU.

2010s and beyond

The ECU now has full control over the combustion of the mixture, the opening of the throttle, the cooling system and emission systems. It can have more than a hundred inputs and outputs and is part of a network of dozens of other Electronic Control Units within the vehicle. Hybrid systems rely on communication with the ECU to function, while Driving Assistance features communicate to take control of engine demand where necessary.

Sours: https://www.ecutesting.com/categories/ecu-explained/

Works ecu

Engine control unit

Computer that adjusts electronics in an internal combustion propulsion system

For other uses, see ECU.

An engine control unit (ECU), also commonly called an engine control module (ECM) is a type of electronic control unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine performance. It does this by reading values from a multitude of sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using multidimensional performance maps (called lookup tables), and adjusting the engine actuators. Before ECUs, air–fuel mixture, ignition timing, and idle speed were mechanically set and dynamically controlled by mechanical and pneumatic means.

If the ECU has control over the fuel lines, then it is referred to as an electronic engine management system (EEMS). The fuel injection system has the major role of controlling the engine's fuel supply. The whole mechanism of the EEMS is controlled by a stack of sensors and actuators.

Workings[edit]

Control of air–fuel ratio[edit]

Most modern engines use some type of fuel injection to deliver fuel to the cylinders. The ECU determines the amount of fuel to inject based on a number of sensor readings. Oxygen sensors tell the ECU whether the engine is running rich (too much fuel or too little oxygen) or running lean (too much oxygen or too little fuel) as compared to ideal conditions (known as stoichiometric). The throttle position sensor tells the ECU how far the throttle plate is opened when the accelerator (gas pedal) is pressed down. The mass air flow sensor measures the amount of air flowing into the engine through the throttle plate. The engine coolant temperature sensor measures whether the engine is warmed up or cool. If the engine is still cool, additional fuel will be injected.

Air–fuel mixture control of carburetors with computers is designed with a similar principle, but a mixture control solenoid or stepper motor is incorporated in the float bowl of the carburetor.

Control of idle speed[edit]

Most engine systems have idle speed control built into the ECU. The engine RPM is monitored by the crankshaft position sensor which plays a primary role in the engine timing functions for fuel injection, spark events, and valve timing. Idle speed is controlled by a programmable throttle stop or an idle air bypass control stepper motor. Early carburetor-based systems used a programmable throttle stop using a bidirectional DC motor. Early throttle body injection (TBI) systems used an idle air control stepper motor. Effective idle speed control must anticipate the engine load at idle.

A full authority throttle control system may be used to control idle speed, provide cruise control functions and top speed limitation. It also monitors the ECU section for reliability.

Control of variable valve timing[edit]

Some engines have variable valve timing. In such an engine, the ECU controls the time in the engine cycle at which the valves open. The valves are usually opened sooner at higher speed than at lower speed. This can increase the flow of air into the cylinder, increasing power and fuel economy.

Electronic valve control[edit]

Experimental engines have been made and tested that have no camshaft, but have full electronic control of the intake and exhaust valve opening, valve closing and area of the valve opening.[1] Such engines can be started and run without a starter motor for certain multi-cylinder engines equipped with precision timed electronic ignition and fuel injection. Such a static-start engine would provide the efficiency and pollution-reduction improvements of a mild hybrid-electric drive, but without the expense and complexity of an oversized starter motor.[2]

The first production engine of this type was invented (in 2002) and introduced (in 2009) by Italian automaker Fiat in the Alfa Romeo MiTo. Their Multiair engines use electronic valve control which dramatically improve torque and horsepower, while reducing fuel consumption as much as 15%. Basically, the valves are opened by hydraulic pumps, which are operated by the ECU. The valves can open several times per intake stroke, based on engine load. The ECU then decides how much fuel should be injected to optimize combustion.

At steady load conditions, the valve opens, fuel is injected, and the valve closes. Under a sudden increase in throttle, the valve opens in the same intake stroke and a greater amount of fuel is injected. This allows immediate acceleration. For the next stroke, the ECU calculates engine load at the new, higher RPM, and decides how to open the valve: early or late, wide-open or half-open. The optimal opening and timing are always reached and combustion is as precise as possible. This, of course, is impossible with a normal camshaft, which opens the valve for the whole intake period, and always to full lift.

The elimination of cams, lifters, rockers, and timing set reduces not only weight and bulk, but also friction. A significant portion of the power that an engine actually produces is used up just driving the valve train, compressing all those valve springs thousands of times a minute.

Once more fully developed, electronic valve operation will yield even more benefits. Cylinder deactivation, for instance, could be made much more fuel efficient if the intake valve could be opened on every downstroke and the exhaust valve opened on every upstroke of the deactivated cylinder or "dead hole". Another even more significant advancement will be the elimination of the conventional throttle. When a car is run at part throttle, this interruption in the airflow causes excess vacuum, which causes the engine to use up valuable energy acting as a vacuum pump. BMW attempted to get around this on their V-10 powered M5, which had individual throttle butterflies for each cylinder, placed just before the intake valves. With electronic valve operation, it will be possible to control engine speed by regulating valve lift. At part throttle, when less air and gas are needed, the valve lift would not be as great. Full throttle is achieved when the gas pedal is depressed, sending an electronic signal to the ECU, which in turn regulates the lift of each valve event, and opens it all the way up.

Programmability[edit]

A special category of ECUs are those which are programmable; these units can be reprogrammed by the user.

When modifying an engine to include aftermarket or upgrade components, stock ECUs may or may not be able to provide the correct type of control for the application(s) in which the engine may be used. To accommodate for engine modifications, a programmable ECU can be used in place of the factory-shipped ECU. Typical modifications that may require an ECU upgrade can include turbocharging, supercharging, or both, a naturally aspirated engine; fuel injection or spark plug upgrades, exhaust system modifications or upgrades, transmission upgrades, and so on. Programming an ECU typically requires interfacing the unit with a desktop or laptop computer; this interfacing is required so the programming computer can send complete engine tunings to the engine control unit as well as monitor the conditions of the engine in realtime. Connection typically used in this interface are either USB or serial.

By modifying these values while monitoring the exhausts using a wide band lambda probe, engine tuning specialists can determine the optimal fuel flow specific to the engine speed's and throttle position. This process is often carried out at an engine performance facility. A dynamometer is typically found at these locations; these devices can provide engine tuning specialist useful information such as engine speed, power output, torque output, gear change events, and so on. Tuning specialists often utilize a chassis dynamometer for street and other high performance applications.

Engine tuning parameters may include fuel injection volume, throttle-fuel volume mapping, gear shift mapping, and so forth. While the mentioned parameters are common, some ECUs may provide other variables in which a tuning software could potentially modify. These parameters include:

  • Anti-lag
  • Closed loop Lambda: Lets the ECU monitor a permanently installed lambda probe and modify the fueling to achieve the targeted air/fuel ratio desired. This is often the stoichiometric (ideal) air fuel ratio, which on traditional petrol (gasoline) powered vehicles this air-to-fuel ratio is 14.7:1. This can also be a much richer ratio for when the engine is under high load, or possibly a leaner ratio for when the engine is operating under low load cruise conditions for maximum fuel efficiency.
  • Gear control
  • Ignition timing
  • Launch control
  • Fuel pressure regulator
  • Rev limiter
  • Staged fuel injection
  • Transient fueling: Tells the ECU to add a specific amount of fuel when throttle is applied. This is referred to as "acceleration enrichment".
  • Variable cam timing
  • Wastegate control
  • Water temperature correction: Allows for additional fuel to be added when the engine is cold, such as in a winter cold-start scenario or when the engine is dangerously hot, to allow for additional cylinder cooling (though not in a very efficient manner, as an emergency only).

A race-grade ECU is often equipped with a data logger to record all sensor data for later analysis. This can be useful for identifying engine stalls, misfires or other undesired behaviors during a race. The data logger usually has a capacity between 0.5 and 16 megabytes.

In order to communicate with the driver, a race ECU can often be connected to a "data stack", which is a simple dashboard presenting the driver with the current RPM, speed and other basic engine data. These data stacks, which are almost always digital, talk to the ECU using one of several protocols including RS-232 or CANbus. Information is then relayed through the Data Link interface that usually located on the underneath of the steering column.

Sensors[edit]

Sensors for air flow, pressure, temperature, speed, exhaust oxygen, * knock and crank angle position sensor makes a very vital impact in EEMS. sensors

History[edit]

Early designs[edit]

One of the earliest attempts to use such a unitized and automated device to manage multiple engine control functions simultaneously was the Kommandogerät created by BMW in 1939, for their 801 14-cylinder aviation radial engine.[3] This device replaced the 6 controls used to initiate hard acceleration with one control in the 801 series-equipped aircraft. However, it had some problems: it would surge the engine, making close formation flying of the Fw 190 (Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Wurger), a single-engine single-seat German fighter aircraft, somewhat difficult, and at first it switched supercharger gears harshly and at random, which could throw the aircraft into an extremely dangerous stall.

The development of integrated circuits and microprocessors made engine control economically feasible in the 1970s. In the early 1970s, the Japanese electronics industry began producing integrated circuits and microcontrollers for engine control in Japanese automobiles.[4] The Ford EEC (Electronic Engine Control) system, which utilized the Toshiba TLCS-12 microprocessor, went into mass production in 1975.[5]

Hybrid digital designs[edit]

Hybriddigital or analog designs were popular in the mid-1980s. This used analog techniques to measure and process input parameters from the engine, then used a lookup table stored in a digital ROM chip to yield precomputed output values. Later systems compute these outputs dynamically. The ROM type of system is amenable to tuning if one knows the system well. The disadvantage of such systems is that the precomputed values are only optimal for an idealised, new engine. As the engine wears, the system may be less able to compensate compared to other designs.

Modern design[edit]

Modern ECUs use a microprocessor which can process the inputs from the engine sensors in real-time. An electronic control unit contains the hardware and software (firmware). The hardware consists of electronic components on a printed circuit board (PCB), ceramic substrate or a thin laminate substrate. The main component on this circuit board is a microcontroller chip (MCU). The software is stored in the microcontroller or other chips on the PCB., typically in EPROMs or flash memory so the CPU can be re-programmed by uploading updated code or replacing chips. This is also referred to as an (electronic) Engine Management System (EMS).

ECU reference architecture
ECU reference architecture

Sophisticated engine management systems receive inputs from other sources, and control other parts of the engine; for instance, some variable valve timing systems are electronically controlled, and turbocharger waste gates can also be managed. They also may communicate with transmission control units or directly interface electronically controlled automatic transmissions, traction control systems, and the like. The Controller Area Network or CAN bus automotive network is often used to achieve communication between these devices.

Modern ECUs sometimes include features such as cruise control, transmission control, anti-skid brake control, and anti-theft control, etc.

General Motors' (GM) first ECUs had a small application of hybrid digital ECUs as a pilot program in 1979, but by 1980, all active programs were using microprocessor based systems. Due to the large ramp up of volume of ECUs that were produced to meet the Clean Air Act requirements for 1981, only one ECU model could be built for the 1981 model year.[6] The high volume ECU that was installed in GM vehicles from the first high volume year, 1981, onward was a modern microprocessor based system. GM moved rapidly to replace carburation with fuel injection as the preferred method of fuel delivery for vehicles it manufactured. This process first saw fruition in 1980 with fuel injected Cadillac engines, followed by the Pontiac 2.5L I4 "Iron Duke" and the Chevrolet 5.7L V8L83 "Cross-Fire" engine powering the Chevrolet Corvette in 1982. The 1990 Cadillac Brougham powered by the Oldsmobile 5.0L V8 LV2 engine was the last carbureted passenger car manufactured for sale in the North American market (a 1992 Volkswagen Beetle model powered by a carbureted engine was available for purchase in Mexico but not offered for sale in the United States or Canada) and by 1991 GM was the last of the major US and Japanese automakers to abandon carburetion and manufacture all of its passenger cars exclusively with fuel injected engines. In 1988 Delco (GM's electronics division), had produced more than 28,000 ECUs per day, making it the world's largest producer of on-board digital control computers at the time.[7]

Other applications[edit]

Such systems are used for many internal combustion engines in other applications. In aeronautical applications, the systems are known as "FADECs" (Full Authority Digital Engine Controls). This kind of electronic control is less common in piston-engined light fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters than in automobiles. This is due to the common configuration of a carbureted engine with a magneto ignition system that does not require electrical power generated by an alternator to run, which is considered a safety advantage.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Austen, Ian (2003-08-21). "WHAT'S NEXT; A Chip-Based Challenge to a Car's Spinning Camshaft". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
  2. ^Kassakian, J.G.; Wolf, H.-C.; Miller, J.M.; Hurton, C.J. (1996). "Automotive electrical systems circa 2005". IEEE Spectrum. 33 (8): 22. doi:10.1109/6.511737.
  3. ^Gunston, Bill (1989). World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England: Patrick Stephens Limited. p. 26. ISBN .
  4. ^"Trends in the Semiconductor Industry: 1970s". Semiconductor History Museum of Japan. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  5. ^"1973: 12-bit engine-control microprocessor (Toshiba)"(PDF). Semiconductor History Museum of Japan. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  6. ^GM Emission Control Project Center - I Was There - GMnext
  7. ^Delco Electronics Electron Magazine, The Atwood Legacy, Spring '89, page 25
  8. ^Pilot's Encyclopedia of Aeronautical Knowledge. Federal Aviation Administration.
  9. ^"SECU3 open source ECU".SECU-3

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engine_control_unit
What is an ECU? How ECUs Work?

Student Employment

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Student employees who are hired/rehired after January 1, 2015 and work 30 hours or more per week are considered eligible for health insurance and will be notified through email by the Benefits Unit and offered the High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP).  Those eligible will receive an email with information, an enrollment guide, and the uniform summary of benefits within 30 days of the date eligibility is determined.

If it is determined that you are eligible, the Benefits Unit will contact you through email. If you are not contacted shortly after your hire date, but you think you are eligible for coverage under ACA regulations, contact Theresa Cieslinski at 252-328-9845 or [email protected] or Lee Ann Goff at 252-328-9825 or [email protected]

 

 

National Student Employment Week


Student Employment offers students career-enhancing opportunities, the ability to develop skills relevant in any career, and better preparation for the job market upon graduation. Student employees perform invaluable services with enthusiasm, dedication, and initiative. The ECU campus and the local community depend on the contributions of this reliable workforce for efficient operation. For this reason, ECU participates in National Student Employment Week to draw awareness to the contributions that our student employees make in the multitude of roles they fill.

During this special week, departmental supervisors are given the opportunity to nominate exemplary student employees as recipients of ECU’s Student Employee of the Year Award. Student employee nominees are assessed on the following characteristics:

  • Reliability
  • Quality of work
  • Initiative
  • Professionalism
  • The uniqueness of the student’s contribution to the employer

During this week, students are; in turn, given the opportunity to nominate their Supervisor for ECU’s Supervisor of the Year Award.

 

 

Student Employment Newsletter


For more information about Student Employment news and events, refer to our latest Student Employment Newsletter.

Sours: https://humanresources.ecu.edu/student-employment/

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ECU Works

ECU Works May Be For You!

ECUWorks is an exciting, new program offered by Campus Living that is designed to provide eligible students the opportunity to learn life skills while reducing their student debt and minimizing the need for student loans.

ECU Works at a Glance

Students accepted into the ECUWorks program offset their housing costs for the full academic year by working an average of 16 hours per week in one of various capacities within ECU community.

Other benefits include priority registration, early move-in, leadership development and resume building activities.

Accepted students are assigned positions one of the following areas: dining services, landscaping and grounds, and administrative office support.

Only first-year new students at ECU who are North Carolina residents planning to live on campus may apply.

To Apply

Visit ecu.academicworks.com, then enter “ECUWorks” in the Search by Keyword box. Once there, sign in using your PirateID and password. Complete the application process online. All applicants will be screened and finalists invited to campus for personal interviews.

What types of jobs are available?

Students will be assigned to one of the following areas: dining services, neighborhood service offices, College Hill Fitness Pointe, Campus Living grounds crew, and administrative office support within Campus Living operations.

Student majors and interests will be taken into account in job placement, however, placement will be made by the selection committee based on the interview process.

Will this program affect my financial aid award?

Taking part in ECUWorks is the equivalent of receiving approximately a $5,600 aid award and will reduce the overall financial aid need and award a student would receive.

Individual impacts of this program on student finances will vary, and it is recommended that students speak directly with Financial Aid with any specific questions or concerns.

What are the selection criteria?

Students must complete an online application and pass a screening process in order to be invited to interviews. Interview invitations will be offered in early to mid-February.

Students invited to interview must be available in late February on the ECU campus (dates to be determined). Each interviewee will receive two personal interviews and will attend an informational session.

When do I have to arrive on campus if I am selected for ECUWorks?

Students will be required to move into the residence halls approximately one week early for training and assimilation into this program in the fall semester. Housing and meals will be provided during this early arrival period.

Sours: https://campusliving.ecu.edu/ecu-works/


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