Create timestamp python

Create timestamp python DEFAULT

Python : How to get Current date and time or timestamp ?

In this article we will discuss different ways to get the current date & timestamp in python.

Get the current date & time using datetime.now()

Python provides a module datetime which has a class datetime. It provides a method now().

datetime.now(tz=None)
It returns a datetime class object containing the current date & time information in provided timezone. If no timezone is provided then returned object will contain the current date time information in local timezone.

To use this we need to import datetime class from datetime module i.e.

from datetime import datetime
Let’s use this to get the current date & timestamp i.e.
# Returns a datetime object containing the local date and time dateTimeObj = datetime.now()
We can directly print this datetime object, it will display the data in readable format i.e.
print(dateTimeObj)
Output
2018-11-18 09:32:36.435350
Now let’s access the member variables of datetime object to fetch the current timestamp elements like month , year, hour etc.
# Access the member variables of datetime object to print date & time information print(dateTimeObj.year, '/', dateTimeObj.month, '/', dateTimeObj.day) print(dateTimeObj.hour, ':', dateTimeObj.minute, ':', dateTimeObj.second, '.', dateTimeObj.microsecond)
Output:
2018 / 11 / 18 9 : 32 : 36 . 435350
Instead of accessing each member of datetime object & creating a string of timestamp, we can directly convert the datetime object to different string formats. For example,

Let’s get the current timestamp & convert the datetime object to DD-MMM-YYYY (HH:MM::SS.MICROS) format i.e.

# Converting datetime object to string dateTimeObj = datetime.now() timestampStr = dateTimeObj.strftime("%d-%b-%Y (%H:%M:%S.%f)") print('Current Timestamp : ', timestampStr)
Output:
Current Timestamp : 18-Nov-2018 (09:32:36.435350)
We will discuss datetime to string conversion in more details in next article.

Get the current Date only

Suppose we don’t want complete current timestamp, we are just interested in current date. How to do that ?

datetime class in datetime module consists of  2 other classes i.e date & time class. We can get date object from a datetime object i.e.

dateTimeObj = datetime.now() # get the date object from datetime object dateObj = dateTimeObj.date()
It contains the date part of the current timestamp, we can access it’s member variables to get the fields or we can directly and we can also print the object too i.e.
# Access the member variables of date object to print print(dateObj.year, '/', dateObj.month, '/', dateObj.day) # Print the date object print(dateObj)
Output:
9 : 37 : 55 . 574360 09:37:55.574360
or we can convert it to string too i.e.
# Converting date object to string dateStr = dateObj.strftime("%b %d %Y ") print(dateStr)
Output:
Nov 18 2018

Get the current Time only

Now Suppose we are just interested in current time of today. How to do that?

As datetime module provides a datetime.time class too. We can get time object from a datetime object i.e.

# Returns a datetime object containing the local date and time dateTimeObj = datetime.now() # get the time object from datetime object timeObj = dateTimeObj.time()
It contains the time part of the current timestamp, we can access it’s member variables to get the fields or we can directly and we can also print the object too i.e.
# Access the member variables of time object to print time information print(timeObj.hour, ':', timeObj.minute, ':', timeObj.second, '.', timeObj.microsecond) # It contains the time part of the current timestamp, we can access it's member variables to get the fields or we can directly print the object too print(timeObj)
Output:
9 : 44 : 41 . 921898 09:44:41.921898
or we can convert it to string too i.e.
timeStr = timeObj.strftime("%H:%M:%S.%f")
Contents of timeStr will be,
09:44:41.921898

Get Current Timestamp using time.time()

Python provides a module time & it has a function time() that returns the number of seconds that have elapsed since epoch i.e. January 1, 1970 i.e.

# Get the seconds since epoch secondsSinceEpoch = time.time()
Convert seconds since epoch to struct_time i.e.
# Convert seconds since epoch to struct_time timeObj = time.localtime(secondsSinceEpoch)
Now let’s access the member variables of struct_time object to create current timestamp in string format i.e.
# get the current timestamp elements from struct_time object i.e. print('Current TimeStamp is : %d-%d-%d %d:%d:%d' % ( timeObj.tm_mday, timeObj.tm_mon, timeObj.tm_year, timeObj.tm_hour, timeObj.tm_min, timeObj.tm_sec))
Output:
Current TimeStamp is : 18-11-2018 9:44:41

Get Current Timestamp using time.ctime()

time module has another function time.ctime() i.e.

def ctime(seconds=None)
It accepts the seconds since epoch and convert them into a readable string format. If seconds are not passed it will take current timestamp i.e.
timeStr = time.ctime() print('Current Timestamp : ', timeStr)
Output:
Current Timestamp : Sun Nov 18 09:44:41 2018
Complete executable example is as follows,
import time from datetime import datetime def main(): print('*** Get Current date & timestamp using datetime.now() ***') # Returns a datetime object containing the local date and time dateTimeObj = datetime.now() # Access the member variables of datetime object to print date & time information print(dateTimeObj.year, '/', dateTimeObj.month, '/', dateTimeObj.day) print(dateTimeObj.hour, ':', dateTimeObj.minute, ':', dateTimeObj.second, '.', dateTimeObj.microsecond) print(dateTimeObj) # Converting datetime object to string timestampStr = dateTimeObj.strftime("%d-%b-%Y (%H:%M:%S.%f)") print('Current Timestamp : ', timestampStr) timestampStr = dateTimeObj.strftime("%H:%M:%S.%f - %b %d %Y ") print('Current Timestamp : ', timestampStr) print('*** Fetch the date only from datetime object ***') # get the date object from datetime object dateObj = dateTimeObj.date() # Print the date object print(dateObj) # Access the member variables of date object to print print(dateObj.year, '/', dateObj.month, '/', dateObj.day) # Converting date object to string dateStr = dateObj.strftime("%b %d %Y ") print(dateStr) print('*** Fetch the time only from datetime object ***') # get the time object from datetime object timeObj = dateTimeObj.time() # Access the member variables of time object to print time information print(timeObj.hour, ':', timeObj.minute, ':', timeObj.second, '.', timeObj.microsecond) # It contains the time part of the current timestamp, we can access it's member variables to get the fields or we can directly print the object too print(timeObj) # Converting date object to string timeStr = timeObj.strftime("%H:%M:%S.%f") print(timeStr) print('*** Get Current Timestamp using time.time() ***') # Get the seconds since epoch secondsSinceEpoch = time.time() print('Seconds since epoch : ', secondsSinceEpoch) # Convert seconds since epoch to struct_time timeObj = time.localtime(secondsSinceEpoch) print(timeObj) # get the current timestamp elements from struct_time object i.e. print('Current TimeStamp is : %d-%d-%d %d:%d:%d' % ( timeObj.tm_mday, timeObj.tm_mon, timeObj.tm_year, timeObj.tm_hour, timeObj.tm_min, timeObj.tm_sec)) # It does not have the microsecond field print('*** Get Current Timestamp using time.ctime() *** ') timeStr = time.ctime() print('Current Timestamp : ', timeStr) if __name__ == '__main__': main()
Output:
*** Get Current date & timestamp using datetime.now() *** 2018 / 11 / 18 9 : 44 : 41 . 921898 2018-11-18 09:44:41.921898 Current Timestamp : 18-Nov-2018 (09:44:41.921898) Current Timestamp : 09:44:41.921898 - Nov 18 2018 *** Fetch the date only from datetime object *** 2018-11-18 2018 / 11 / 18 Nov 18 2018 *** Fetch the time only from datetime object *** 9 : 44 : 41 . 921898 09:44:41.921898 09:44:41.921898 *** Get Current Timestamp using time.time() *** Seconds since epoch : 1542514481.9218981 time.struct_time(tm_year=2018, tm_mon=11, tm_mday=18, tm_hour=9, tm_min=44, tm_sec=41, tm_wday=6, tm_yday=322, tm_isdst=0) Current TimeStamp is : 18-11-2018 9:44:41 *** Get Current Timestamp using time.ctime() *** Current Timestamp : Sun Nov 18 09:44:41 2018
 
Sours: https://thispointer.com/python-how-to-get-current-date-and-time-or-timestamp/

Get current timestamp using Python

A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information used to find when a particular event occurred, generally giving the date and time of the day, accurate to a small fraction of a second. In this article, we will learn how to Get current timestamp in Python.

There are different ways to get current timestamp in Python, We can use functions from modules time, datetime and calendar.

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1. Using module time :
The time module provides various time-related functions. The function time, return the time in seconds since the epoch as a floating point number. epoch is defined as the point where the time starts and is platform dependent.



Syntax: time.time() Parameters: NA Return: floating point number expressed in seconds.

 

 

Output:

1594819641.9622827

 
2. Using module datetime :
The datetime module provides classes for manipulating dates and times.
While date and time arithmetic is supported, the target of the implementation is on efficient attribute extraction for output formatting and manipulation. The function datetime.datetime.now which return number of seconds since the epoch.

Syntax: datetime.now() Parameters: tz (time zone) which is optional. Return: the current local date and time.

 

 

Output:

current time:- 2020-07-15 14:30:26.159446 timestamp:- 1594823426.159446

 
3. Using module calendar :
We can also get timestamp by combining multiple functions from multiple modules. In this we we’ll use function calendar.timegm to convert tuple representing current time.

Syntax: calendar.timegm(tuple) Parameters: takes a time tuple such as returned by the gmtime() function in the time module. Return: the corresponding Unix timestamp value.

 

 

Output:

gmt:- time.struct_time(tm_year=2020, tm_mon=7, tm_mday=15, tm_hour=19, tm_min=21, tm_sec=6, tm_wday=2, tm_yday=197, tm_isdst=0)
timestamp:- 1594840866




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— Basic date and time types¶

Source code:Lib/datetime.py


The module supplies classes for manipulating dates and times.

While date and time arithmetic is supported, the focus of the implementation is on efficient attribute extraction for output formatting and manipulation.

See also

Module

General calendar related functions.

Module

Time access and conversions.

Package dateutil

Third-party library with expanded time zone and parsing support.

Aware and Naive Objects¶

Date and time objects may be categorized as “aware” or “naive” depending on whether or not they include timezone information.

With sufficient knowledge of applicable algorithmic and political time adjustments, such as time zone and daylight saving time information, an aware object can locate itself relative to other aware objects. An aware object represents a specific moment in time that is not open to interpretation. 1

A naive object does not contain enough information to unambiguously locate itself relative to other date/time objects. Whether a naive object represents Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), local time, or time in some other timezone is purely up to the program, just like it is up to the program whether a particular number represents metres, miles, or mass. Naive objects are easy to understand and to work with, at the cost of ignoring some aspects of reality.

For applications requiring aware objects, and objects have an optional time zone information attribute, , that can be set to an instance of a subclass of the abstract class. These objects capture information about the offset from UTC time, the time zone name, and whether daylight saving time is in effect.

Only one concrete class, the class, is supplied by the module. The class can represent simple timezones with fixed offsets from UTC, such as UTC itself or North American EST and EDT timezones. Supporting timezones at deeper levels of detail is up to the application. The rules for time adjustment across the world are more political than rational, change frequently, and there is no standard suitable for every application aside from UTC.

Constants¶

The module exports the following constants:

The smallest year number allowed in a or object. is .

The largest year number allowed in a or object. is .

Available Types¶

class

An idealized naive date, assuming the current Gregorian calendar always was, and always will be, in effect. Attributes: , , and .

class

An idealized time, independent of any particular day, assuming that every day has exactly 24*60*60 seconds. (There is no notion of “leap seconds” here.) Attributes: , , , , and .

class

A combination of a date and a time. Attributes: , , , , , , , and .

class

A duration expressing the difference between two , , or instances to microsecond resolution.

class

An abstract base class for time zone information objects. These are used by the and classes to provide a customizable notion of time adjustment (for example, to account for time zone and/or daylight saving time).

class

A class that implements the abstract base class as a fixed offset from the UTC.

Objects of these types are immutable.

Subclass relationships:

objecttimedeltatzinfotimezonetimedatedatetime

Common Properties¶

The , , , and types share these common features:

  • Objects of these types are immutable.

  • Objects of these types are hashable, meaning that they can be used as dictionary keys.

  • Objects of these types support efficient pickling via the module.

Determining if an Object is Aware or Naive¶

Objects of the type are always naive.

An object of type or may be aware or naive.

A object d is aware if both of the following hold:

  1. is not

  2. does not return

Otherwise, d is naive.

A object t is aware if both of the following hold:

  1. is not

  2. does not return .

Otherwise, t is naive.

The distinction between aware and naive doesn’t apply to objects.

Objects¶

A object represents a duration, the difference between two dates or times.

class (days=0, seconds=0, microseconds=0, milliseconds=0, minutes=0, hours=0, weeks=0

All arguments are optional and default to . Arguments may be integers or floats, and may be positive or negative.

Only days, seconds and microseconds are stored internally. Arguments are converted to those units:

  • A millisecond is converted to 1000 microseconds.

  • A minute is converted to 60 seconds.

  • An hour is converted to 3600 seconds.

  • A week is converted to 7 days.

and days, seconds and microseconds are then normalized so that the representation is unique, with

  • (the number of seconds in one day)

The following example illustrates how any arguments besides days, seconds and microseconds are “merged” and normalized into those three resulting attributes:

>>> fromdatetimeimporttimedelta>>> delta=timedelta(... days=50,... seconds=27,... microseconds=10,... milliseconds=29000,... minutes=5,... hours=8,... weeks=2... )>>> # Only days, seconds, and microseconds remain>>> deltadatetime.timedelta(days=64, seconds=29156, microseconds=10)

If any argument is a float and there are fractional microseconds, the fractional microseconds left over from all arguments are combined and their sum is rounded to the nearest microsecond using round-half-to-even tiebreaker. If no argument is a float, the conversion and normalization processes are exact (no information is lost).

If the normalized value of days lies outside the indicated range, is raised.

Note that normalization of negative values may be surprising at first. For example:

>>> fromdatetimeimporttimedelta>>> d=timedelta(microseconds=-1)>>> (d.days,d.seconds,d.microseconds)(-1, 86399, 999999)

Class attributes:

The most negative object, .

The most positive object, .

The smallest possible difference between non-equal objects, .

Note that, because of normalization, > . is not representable as a object.

Instance attributes (read-only):

Attribute

Value

Between -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive

Between 0 and 86399 inclusive

Between 0 and 999999 inclusive

Supported operations:

Operation

Result

Sum of t2 and t3. Afterwards t1-t2 == t3 and t1-t3 == t2 are true. (1)

Difference of t2 and t3. Afterwards t1 == t2 - t3 and t2 == t1 + t3 are true. (1)(6)

Delta multiplied by an integer. Afterwards t1 // i == t2 is true, provided .

In general, t1 * i == t1 * (i-1) + t1 is true. (1)

Delta multiplied by a float. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.

Division (3) of overall duration t2 by interval unit t3. Returns a object.

Delta divided by a float or an int. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.

or

The floor is computed and the remainder (if any) is thrown away. In the second case, an integer is returned. (3)

The remainder is computed as a object. (3)

Computes the quotient and the remainder: (3) and . q is an integer and r is a object.

Returns a object with the same value. (2)

equivalent to (-t1.days, -t1.seconds, -t1.microseconds), and to t1* -1. (1)(4)

equivalent to +t when , and to -t when . (2)

Returns a string in the form , where D is negative for negative . (5)

Returns a string representation of the object as a constructor call with canonical attribute values.

Notes:

  1. This is exact but may overflow.

  2. This is exact and cannot overflow.

  3. Division by 0 raises .

  4. -timedelta.max is not representable as a object.

  5. String representations of objects are normalized similarly to their internal representation. This leads to somewhat unusual results for negative timedeltas. For example:

    >>> timedelta(hours=-5)datetime.timedelta(days=-1, seconds=68400)>>> print(_)-1 day, 19:00:00
  6. The expression will always be equal to the expression except when t3 is equal to ; in that case the former will produce a result while the latter will overflow.

In addition to the operations listed above, objects support certain additions and subtractions with and objects (see below).

Changed in version 3.2: Floor division and true division of a object by another object are now supported, as are remainder operations and the function. True division and multiplication of a object by a object are now supported.

Comparisons of objects are supported, with some caveats.

The comparisons or always return a , no matter the type of the compared object:

>>> fromdatetimeimporttimedelta>>> delta1=timedelta(seconds=57)>>> delta2=timedelta(hours=25,seconds=2)>>> delta2!=delta1True>>> delta2==5False

For all other comparisons (such as and ), when a object is compared to an object of a different type, is raised:

>>> delta2>delta1True>>> delta2>5Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>TypeError: '>' not supported between instances of 'datetime.timedelta' and 'int'

In Boolean contexts, a object is considered to be true if and only if it isn’t equal to .

Instance methods:

()¶

Return the total number of seconds contained in the duration. Equivalent to . For interval units other than seconds, use the division form directly (e.g. ).

Note that for very large time intervals (greater than 270 years on most platforms) this method will lose microsecond accuracy.

Examples of usage: ¶

An additional example of normalization:

>>> # Components of another_year add up to exactly 365 days>>> fromdatetimeimporttimedelta>>> year=timedelta(days=365)>>> another_year=timedelta(weeks=40,days=84,hours=23,... minutes=50,seconds=600)>>> year==another_yearTrue>>> year.total_seconds()31536000.0

Examples of arithmetic:

>>> fromdatetimeimporttimedelta>>> year=timedelta(days=365)>>> ten_years=10*year>>> ten_yearsdatetime.timedelta(days=3650)>>> ten_years.days//36510>>> nine_years=ten_years-year>>> nine_yearsdatetime.timedelta(days=3285)>>> three_years=nine_years//3>>> three_years,three_years.days//365(datetime.timedelta(days=1095), 3)

Objects¶

A object represents a date (year, month and day) in an idealized calendar, the current Gregorian calendar indefinitely extended in both directions.

January 1 of year 1 is called day number 1, January 2 of year 1 is called day number 2, and so on. 2

class (year, month, day

All arguments are required. Arguments must be integers, in the following ranges:

If an argument outside those ranges is given, is raised.

Other constructors, all class methods:

classmethod ()¶

Return the current local date.

This is equivalent to .

classmethod (timestamp

Return the local date corresponding to the POSIX timestamp, such as is returned by .

This may raise , if the timestamp is out of the range of values supported by the platform C function, and on failure. It’s common for this to be restricted to years from 1970 through 2038. Note that on non-POSIX systems that include leap seconds in their notion of a timestamp, leap seconds are ignored by .

Changed in version 3.3: Raise instead of if the timestamp is out of the range of values supported by the platform C function. Raise instead of on failure.

classmethod (ordinal

Return the date corresponding to the proleptic Gregorian ordinal, where January 1 of year 1 has ordinal 1.

is raised unless . For any date d, .

classmethod (date_string

Return a corresponding to a date_string given in the format :

>>> fromdatetimeimportdate>>> date.fromisoformat('2019-12-04')datetime.date(2019, 12, 4)

This is the inverse of . It only supports the format .

classmethod (year, week, day

Return a corresponding to the ISO calendar date specified by year, week and day. This is the inverse of the function .

Class attributes:

The earliest representable date, .

The latest representable date, .

The smallest possible difference between non-equal date objects, .

Instance attributes (read-only):

Between and inclusive.

Between 1 and 12 inclusive.

Between 1 and the number of days in the given month of the given year.

Supported operations:

Operation

Result

date2 is days removed from date1. (1)

Computes date2 such that . (2)

(3)

date1 is considered less than date2 when date1 precedes date2 in time. (4)

Notes:

  1. date2 is moved forward in time if , or backward if . Afterward . and are ignored. is raised if would be smaller than or larger than .

  2. and are ignored.

  3. This is exact, and cannot overflow. timedelta.seconds and timedelta.microseconds are 0, and date2 + timedelta == date1 after.

  4. In other words, if and only if . Date comparison raises if the other comparand isn’t also a object. However, is returned instead if the other comparand has a attribute. This hook gives other kinds of date objects a chance at implementing mixed-type comparison. If not, when a object is compared to an object of a different type, is raised unless the comparison is or . The latter cases return or , respectively.

In Boolean contexts, all objects are considered to be true.

Instance methods:

(year=self.year, month=self.month, day=self.day

Return a date with the same value, except for those parameters given new values by whichever keyword arguments are specified.

Example:

>>> fromdatetimeimportdate>>> d=date(2002,12,31)>>> d.replace(day=26)datetime.date(2002, 12, 26)
()¶

Return a such as returned by .

The hours, minutes and seconds are 0, and the DST flag is -1.

is equivalent to:

time.struct_time((d.year,d.month,d.day,0,0,0,d.weekday(),yday,-1))

where is the day number within the current year starting with for January 1st.

()¶

Return the proleptic Gregorian ordinal of the date, where January 1 of year 1 has ordinal 1. For any object d, .

()¶

Return the day of the week as an integer, where Monday is 0 and Sunday is 6. For example, , a Wednesday. See also .

()¶

Return the day of the week as an integer, where Monday is 1 and Sunday is 7. For example, , a Wednesday. See also , .

()¶

Return a named tuple object with three components: , and .

The ISO calendar is a widely used variant of the Gregorian calendar. 3

The ISO year consists of 52 or 53 full weeks, and where a week starts on a Monday and ends on a Sunday. The first week of an ISO year is the first (Gregorian) calendar week of a year containing a Thursday. This is called week number 1, and the ISO year of that Thursday is the same as its Gregorian year.

For example, 2004 begins on a Thursday, so the first week of ISO year 2004 begins on Monday, 29 Dec 2003 and ends on Sunday, 4 Jan 2004:

>>> fromdatetimeimportdate>>> date(2003,12,29).isocalendar()datetime.IsoCalendarDate(year=2004, week=1, weekday=1)>>> date(2004,1,4).isocalendar()datetime.IsoCalendarDate(year=2004, week=1, weekday=7)

Changed in version 3.9: Result changed from a tuple to a named tuple.

()¶

Return a string representing the date in ISO 8601 format, :

>>> fromdatetimeimportdate>>> date(2002,12,4).isoformat()'2002-12-04'

This is the inverse of .

()¶

For a date d, is equivalent to .

()¶

Return a string representing the date:

>>> fromdatetimeimportdate>>> date(2002,12,4).ctime()'Wed Dec 4 00:00:00 2002'

is equivalent to:

time.ctime(time.mktime(d.timetuple()))

on platforms where the native C function (which invokes, but which does not invoke) conforms to the C standard.

(format

Return a string representing the date, controlled by an explicit format string. Format codes referring to hours, minutes or seconds will see 0 values. For a complete list of formatting directives, see strftime() and strptime() Behavior.

(format

Same as . This makes it possible to specify a format string for a object in formatted string literals and when using . For a complete list of formatting directives, see strftime() and strptime() Behavior.

Examples of Usage: ¶

Example of counting days to an event:

>>> importtime>>> fromdatetimeimportdate>>> today=date.today()>>> todaydatetime.date(2007, 12, 5)>>> today==date.fromtimestamp(time.time())True>>> my_birthday=date(today.year,6,24)>>> ifmy_birthday<today:... my_birthday=my_birthday.replace(year=today.year+1)>>> my_birthdaydatetime.date(2008, 6, 24)>>> time_to_birthday=abs(my_birthday-today)>>> time_to_birthday.days202

More examples of working with :

>>> fromdatetimeimportdate>>> d=date.fromordinal(730920)# 730920th day after 1. 1. 0001>>> ddatetime.date(2002, 3, 11)>>> # Methods related to formatting string output>>> d.isoformat()'2002-03-11'>>> d.strftime("%d/%m/%y")'11/03/02'>>> d.strftime("%A %d. %B %Y")'Monday 11. March 2002'>>> d.ctime()'Mon Mar 11 00:00:00 2002'>>> 'The {1} is {0:%d}, the {2} is {0:%B}.'.format(d,"day","month")'The day is 11, the month is March.'>>> # Methods for to extracting 'components' under different calendars>>> t=d.timetuple()>>> foriint:... print(i)2002 # year3 # month11 # day0000 # weekday (0 = Monday)70 # 70th day in the year-1>>> ic=d.isocalendar()>>> foriinic:... print(i)2002 # ISO year11 # ISO week number1 # ISO day number ( 1 = Monday )>>> # A date object is immutable; all operations produce a new object>>> d.replace(year=2005)datetime.date(2005, 3, 11)

Objects¶

A object is a single object containing all the information from a object and a object.

Like a object, assumes the current Gregorian calendar extended in both directions; like a object, assumes there are exactly 3600*24 seconds in every day.

Constructor:

class (year, month, day, hour=0, minute=0, second=0, microsecond=0, tzinfo=None, *, fold=0

The year, month and day arguments are required. tzinfo may be , or an instance of a subclass. The remaining arguments must be integers in the following ranges:

  • ,

  • ,

  • ,

  • ,

  • ,

  • ,

  • ,

  • .

If an argument outside those ranges is given, is raised.

New in version 3.6: Added the argument.

Other constructors, all class methods:

classmethod ()¶

Return the current local datetime, with .

Equivalent to:

datetime.fromtimestamp(time.time())

See also , .

This method is functionally equivalent to , but without a parameter.

classmethod (tz=None

Return the current local date and time.

If optional argument tz is or not specified, this is like , but, if possible, supplies more precision than can be gotten from going through a timestamp (for example, this may be possible on platforms supplying the C function).

If tz is not , it must be an instance of a subclass, and the current date and time are converted to tz’s time zone.

This function is preferred over and .

classmethod ()¶

Return the current UTC date and time, with .

This is like , but returns the current UTC date and time, as a naive object. An aware current UTC datetime can be obtained by calling . See also .

Warning

Because naive objects are treated by many methods as local times, it is preferred to use aware datetimes to represent times in UTC. As such, the recommended way to create an object representing the current time in UTC is by calling .

classmethod (timestamp, tz=None

Return the local date and time corresponding to the POSIX timestamp, such as is returned by . If optional argument tz is or not specified, the timestamp is converted to the platform’s local date and time, and the returned object is naive.

If tz is not , it must be an instance of a subclass, and the timestamp is converted to tz’s time zone.

may raise , if the timestamp is out of the range of values supported by the platform C or functions, and on or failure. It’s common for this to be restricted to years in 1970 through 2038. Note that on non-POSIX systems that include leap seconds in their notion of a timestamp, leap seconds are ignored by , and then it’s possible to have two timestamps differing by a second that yield identical objects. This method is preferred over .

Changed in version 3.3: Raise instead of if the timestamp is out of the range of values supported by the platform C or functions. Raise instead of on or failure.

classmethod (timestamp

Return the UTC corresponding to the POSIX timestamp, with . (The resulting object is naive.)

This may raise , if the timestamp is out of the range of values supported by the platform C function, and on failure. It’s common for this to be restricted to years in 1970 through 2038.

To get an aware object, call :

datetime.fromtimestamp(timestamp,timezone.utc)

On the POSIX compliant platforms, it is equivalent to the following expression:

datetime(1970,1,1,tzinfo=timezone.utc)+timedelta(seconds=timestamp)

except the latter formula always supports the full years range: between and inclusive.

Warning

Because naive objects are treated by many methods as local times, it is preferred to use aware datetimes to represent times in UTC. As such, the recommended way to create an object representing a specific timestamp in UTC is by calling .

Changed in version 3.3: Raise instead of if the timestamp is out of the range of values supported by the platform C function. Raise instead of on failure.

classmethod (ordinal

Return the corresponding to the proleptic Gregorian ordinal, where January 1 of year 1 has ordinal 1. is raised unless . The hour, minute, second and microsecond of the result are all 0, and is .

classmethod (date, time, tzinfo=self.tzinfo

Return a new object whose date components are equal to the given object’s, and whose time components are equal to the given object’s. If the tzinfo argument is provided, its value is used to set the attribute of the result, otherwise the attribute of the time argument is used.

For any object d, . If date is a object, its time components and attributes are ignored.

Changed in version 3.6: Added the tzinfo argument.

classmethod (date_string

Return a corresponding to a date_string in one of the formats emitted by and .

Specifically, this function supports strings in the format:

YYYY-MM-DD[*HH[:MM[:SS[.fff[fff]]]][+HH:MM[:SS[.ffffff]]]]

where can match any single character.

Caution

This does not support parsing arbitrary ISO 8601 strings - it is only intended as the inverse operation of . A more full-featured ISO 8601 parser, is available in the third-party package dateutil.

Examples:

>>> fromdatetimeimportdatetime>>> datetime.fromisoformat('2011-11-04')datetime.datetime(2011, 11, 4, 0, 0)>>> datetime.fromisoformat('2011-11-04T00:05:23')datetime.datetime(2011, 11, 4, 0, 5, 23)>>> datetime.fromisoformat('2011-11-04 00:05:23.283')datetime.datetime(2011, 11, 4, 0, 5, 23, 283000)>>> datetime.fromisoformat('2011-11-04 00:05:23.283+00:00')datetime.datetime(2011, 11, 4, 0, 5, 23, 283000, tzinfo=datetime.timezone.utc)>>> datetime.fromisoformat('2011-11-04T00:05:23+04:00')datetime.datetime(2011, 11, 4, 0, 5, 23, tzinfo=datetime.timezone(datetime.timedelta(seconds=14400)))
classmethod (year, week, day

Return a corresponding to the ISO calendar date specified by year, week and day. The non-date components of the datetime are populated with their normal default values. This is the inverse of the function .

classmethod (date_string, format

Return a corresponding to date_string, parsed according to format.

This is equivalent to:

datetime(*(time.strptime(date_string,format)[0:6]))

is raised if the date_string and format can’t be parsed by or if it returns a value which isn’t a time tuple. For a complete list of formatting directives, see strftime() and strptime() Behavior.

Class attributes:

The earliest representable , .

The latest representable , .

The smallest possible difference between non-equal objects, .

Instance attributes (read-only):

Between and inclusive.

Between 1 and 12 inclusive.

Between 1 and the number of days in the given month of the given year.

In .

In .

In .

In .

The object passed as the tzinfo argument to the constructor, or if none was passed.

In . Used to disambiguate wall times during a repeated interval. (A repeated interval occurs when clocks are rolled back at the end of daylight saving time or when the UTC offset for the current zone is decreased for political reasons.) The value 0 (1) represents the earlier (later) of the two moments with the same wall time representation.

Supported operations:

Operation

Result

(1)

(2)

(3)

Compares to . (4)

  1. datetime2 is a duration of timedelta removed from datetime1, moving forward in time if > 0, or backward if < 0. The result has the same attribute as the input datetime, and datetime2 - datetime1 == timedelta after. is raised if datetime2.year would be smaller than or larger than . Note that no time zone adjustments are done even if the input is an aware object.

  2. Computes the datetime2 such that datetime2 + timedelta == datetime1. As for addition, the result has the same attribute as the input datetime, and no time zone adjustments are done even if the input is aware.

  3. Subtraction of a from a is defined only if both operands are naive, or if both are aware. If one is aware and the other is naive, is raised.

    If both are naive, or both are aware and have the same attribute, the attributes are ignored, and the result is a object t such that . No time zone adjustments are done in this case.

    If both are aware and have different attributes, acts as if a and b were first converted to naive UTC datetimes first. The result is except that the implementation never overflows.

  4. datetime1 is considered less than datetime2 when datetime1 precedes datetime2 in time.

    If one comparand is naive and the other is aware, is raised if an order comparison is attempted. For equality comparisons, naive instances are never equal to aware instances.

    If both comparands are aware, and have the same attribute, the common attribute is ignored and the base datetimes are compared. If both comparands are aware and have different attributes, the comparands are first adjusted by subtracting their UTC offsets (obtained from ).

    Changed in version 3.3: Equality comparisons between aware and naive instances don’t raise .

    Note

    In order to stop comparison from falling back to the default scheme of comparing object addresses, datetime comparison normally raises if the other comparand isn’t also a object. However, is returned instead if the other comparand has a attribute. This hook gives other kinds of date objects a chance at implementing mixed-type comparison. If not, when a object is compared to an object of a different type, is raised unless the comparison is or . The latter cases return or , respectively.

Instance methods:

()¶

Return object with same year, month and day.

()¶

Return object with same hour, minute, second, microsecond and fold. is . See also method .

Changed in version 3.6: The fold value is copied to the returned object.

()¶

Return object with same hour, minute, second, microsecond, fold, and tzinfo attributes. See also method .

Changed in version 3.6: The fold value is copied to the returned object.

(year=self.year, month=self.month, day=self.day, hour=self.hour, minute=self.minute, second=self.second, microsecond=self.microsecond, tzinfo=self.tzinfo, *, fold=0

Return a datetime with the same attributes, except for those attributes given new values by whichever keyword arguments are specified. Note that can be specified to create a naive datetime from an aware datetime with no conversion of date and time data.

New in version 3.6: Added the argument.

(tz=None

Return a object with new attribute tz, adjusting the date and time data so the result is the same UTC time as self, but in tz’s local time.

If provided, tz must be an instance of a subclass, and its and methods must not return . If self is naive, it is presumed to represent time in the system timezone.

If called without arguments (or with ) the system local timezone is assumed for the target timezone. The attribute of the converted datetime instance will be set to an instance of with the zone name and offset obtained from the OS.

If is tz, is equal to self: no adjustment of date or time data is performed. Else the result is local time in the timezone tz, representing the same UTC time as self: after , will have the same date and time data as .

If you merely want to attach a time zone object tz to a datetime dt without adjustment of date and time data, use . If you merely want to remove the time zone object from an aware datetime dt without conversion of date and time data, use .

Note that the default method can be overridden in a subclass to affect the result returned by . Ignoring error cases, acts like:

defastimezone(self,tz):ifself.tzinfoistz:returnself# Convert self to UTC, and attach the new time zone object.utc=(self-self.utcoffset()).replace(tzinfo=tz)# Convert from UTC to tz's local time.returntz.fromutc(utc)

Changed in version 3.3: tz now can be omitted.

Changed in version 3.6: The method can now be called on naive instances that are presumed to represent system local time.

()¶

If is , returns , else returns , and raises an exception if the latter doesn’t return or a object with magnitude less than one day.

Changed in version 3.7: The UTC offset is not restricted to a whole number of minutes.

()¶

If is , returns , else returns , and raises an exception if the latter doesn’t return or a object with magnitude less than one day.

Changed in version 3.7: The DST offset is not restricted to a whole number of minutes.

()¶

If is , returns , else returns , raises an exception if the latter doesn’t return or a string object,

()¶

Return a such as returned by .

is equivalent to:

time.struct_time((d.year,d.month,d.day,d.hour,d.minute,d.second,d.weekday(),yday,dst))

where is the day number within the current year starting with for January 1st. The flag of the result is set according to the method: is or returns , is set to ; else if returns a non-zero value, is set to ; else is set to .

()¶

If instance d is naive, this is the same as except that is forced to 0 regardless of what returns. DST is never in effect for a UTC time.

If d is aware, d is normalized to UTC time, by subtracting , and a for the normalized time is returned. is forced to 0. Note that an may be raised if d.year was or and UTC adjustment spills over a year boundary.

Warning

Because naive objects are treated by many methods as local times, it is preferred to use aware datetimes to represent times in UTC; as a result, using may give misleading results. If you have a naive representing UTC, use to make it aware, at which point you can use .

()¶

Return the proleptic Gregorian ordinal of the date. The same as .

()¶

Return POSIX timestamp corresponding to the instance. The return value is a similar to that returned by .

Naive instances are assumed to represent local time and this method relies on the platform C function to perform the conversion. Since supports wider range of values than on many platforms, this method may raise for times far in the past or far in the future.

For aware instances, the return value is computed as:

(dt-datetime(1970,1,1,tzinfo=timezone.utc)).total_seconds()

Changed in version 3.6: The method uses the attribute to disambiguate the times during a repeated interval.

Note

There is no method to obtain the POSIX timestamp directly from a naive instance representing UTC time. If your application uses this convention and your system timezone is not set to UTC, you can obtain the POSIX timestamp by supplying :

timestamp=dt.replace(tzinfo=timezone.utc).timestamp()

or by calculating the timestamp directly:

timestamp=(dt-datetime(1970,1,1))/timedelta(seconds=1)
()¶

Return the day of the week as an integer, where Monday is 0 and Sunday is 6. The same as . See also .

()¶

Return the day of the week as an integer, where Monday is 1 and Sunday is 7. The same as . See also , .

()¶

Return a named tuple with three components: , and . The same as .

(sep='T', timespec='auto'

Return a string representing the date and time in ISO 8601 format:

If does not return , a string is appended, giving the UTC offset:

  • , if is not 0

  • , if is 0

Examples:

>>> fromdatetimeimportdatetime,timezone>>> datetime(2019,5,18,15,17,8,132263).isoformat()'2019-05-18T15:17:08.132263'>>> datetime(2019,5,18,15,17,tzinfo=timezone.utc).isoformat()'2019-05-18T15:17:00+00:00'

The optional argument sep (default ) is a one-character separator, placed between the date and time portions of the result. For example:

>>> fromdatetimeimporttzinfo,timedelta,datetime>>> classTZ(tzinfo):... """A time zone with an arbitrary, constant -06:39 offset."""... defutcoffset(self,dt):... returntimedelta(hours=-6,minutes=-39)...>>> datetime(2002,12,25,tzinfo=TZ()).isoformat(' ')'2002-12-25 00:00:00-06:39'>>> datetime(2009,11,27,microsecond=100,tzinfo=TZ()).isoformat()'2009-11-27T00:00:00.000100-06:39'

The optional argument timespec specifies the number of additional components of the time to include (the default is ). It can be one of the following:

  • : Same as if is 0, same as otherwise.

  • : Include the in the two-digit format.

  • : Include and in format.

  • : Include , , and in format.

  • : Include full time, but truncate fractional second part to milliseconds. format.

  • : Include full time in format.

Note

Excluded time components are truncated, not rounded.

will be raised on an invalid timespec argument:

>>> fromdatetimeimportdatetime>>> datetime.now().isoformat(timespec='minutes')'2002-12-25T00:00'>>> dt=datetime(2015,1,1,12,30,59,0)>>> dt.isoformat(timespec='microseconds')'2015-01-01T12:30:59.000000'

New in version 3.6: Added the timespec argument.

()¶

For a instance d, is equivalent to .

()¶

Return a string representing the date and time:

>>> fromdatetimeimportdatetime>>> datetime(2002,12,4,20,30,40).ctime()'Wed Dec 4 20:30:40 2002'

The output string will not include time zone information, regardless of whether the input is aware or naive.

is equivalent to:

time.ctime(time.mktime(d.timetuple()))

on platforms where the native C function (which invokes, but which does not invoke) conforms to the C standard.

(format

Return a string representing the date and time, controlled by an explicit format string. For a complete list of formatting directives, see strftime() and strptime() Behavior.

(format

Same as . This makes it possible to specify a format string for a object in formatted string literals and when using . For a complete list of formatting directives, see strftime() and strptime() Behavior.

Examples of Usage: ¶

Examples of working with objects:

>>> fromdatetimeimportdatetime,date,time,timezone>>> # Using datetime.combine()>>> d=date(2005,7,14)>>> t=time(12,30)>>> datetime.combine(d,t)datetime.datetime(2005, 7, 14, 12, 30)>>> # Using datetime.now()>>> datetime.now()datetime.datetime(2007, 12, 6, 16, 29, 43, 79043) # GMT +1>>> datetime.now(timezone.utc)datetime.datetime(2007, 12, 6, 15, 29, 43, 79060, tzinfo=datetime.timezone.utc)>>> # Using datetime.strptime()>>> dt=datetime.strptime("21/11/06 16:30","%d/%m/%y %H:%M")>>> dtdatetime.datetime(2006, 11, 21, 16, 30)>>> # Using datetime.timetuple() to get tuple of all attributes>>> tt=dt.timetuple()>>> foritintt:... print(it)...2006 # year11 # month21 # day16 # hour30 # minute0 # second1 # weekday (0 = Monday)325 # number of days since 1st January-1 # dst - method tzinfo.dst() returned None>>> # Date in ISO format>>> ic=dt.isocalendar()
Sours: https://docs.python.org/3/library/datetime.html
Python: Dates, Times \u0026 Timestamps Part-1 - datetime, time libraries

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