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Introduction

1Current advancements in the availability and size of corpora have had considerable impact on linguistic research into historical semantics (Gries [2012], Sagi et al. [2012: 61]). Especially corpora of computer-mediated communication contain large amounts of data that make it possible to answer questions that could previously not have been asked (Grieve et al. [2017: 102]). Concerning diachronic semantic change, previous studies usually focus on decades or centuries (e.g. Geeraerts et al. [2012], Smith [2016]); with the new corpora, language change can be observed on a monthly, weekly, or even daily basis.

2Based on these new possibilities, Grieve et al. [2017] draw attention to the lack of research on “lexical emergence”, which they define as “the process through which new word forms spread across a population of speakers” [2017: 102]. Currently available computational methods for identifying neologisms (e.g. Kerremans & Prokić [2018]) do not allow researchers to zoom in on this initial phase. Grieve et al. [2017] therefore present a methodology for finding emerging lexemes resulting from onomasiological change and apply it to a corpus of Twitter data. While their results are informative, the question remains how effective their methodology is when applied to different social media platforms, and whether the resulting word forms would be similar. The present study thus has a twofold goal: to test their methodology in a different context, the platform Reddit, and to compare the results. To be precise, the following two research questions will be addressed:
(i) Are the characteristics of emerging lexemes on Reddit similar to the characteristics of emerging lexemes on Twitter as identified by Grieve et al. [2017]?
(ii) How applicable is the methodology outlined by Grieve et al. [2017] for the study of lexical emergence on a different online platform, Reddit?

3The present study is therefore located within the tradition of investigating onomasiological change from a usage-based perspective [Geeraerts 2006: 38], as well as recent approaches using large-scale corpora and quantitative methods to study lexical semantics and lexical change (see Allan & Robinson [2012], Geeraerts [2009: 233-235]). The study also widens the perspective of current research on computer-mediated communication to also consider online platforms other than Twitter, which is often the sole source of information. Furthermore, the trial and refinement of the methodology for discovering emerging lexemes holds valuable insights for scholars looking to apply this procedure in the future.

4The following section provides an overview of prior research on lexical change online and on the platform Reddit. Self-evidently, not all papers that contributed to the discussion can be rendered adequately within this short summary.

1.1. Lexical change in the online environment

5Some terminological clarifications are in order at the start. This paper follows the definition of emerging lexemes by Grieve et al. [2017: 101] as new word forms that “spread across a population of speakers for the first time”. They can therefore be located at the initial stage of institutionalisation (Brinton & Traugott [2005: 45], Fischer [1998: 15]), also referred to as conventionalisation (Bakken [2006: 107]). While there appear to be diverging understandings of the term ‘neologism’ in the literature (as the outcome of institutionalisation [Brinton & Traugott 2005: 45] or the input to institutionalisation [Fischer 1998: 7]), the present study will conceptualize neologisms as a broader cover term comprising emerging lexemes.

6The remainder of this section discusses important studies focusing on lexical change within computer-mediated communication. The main paper relevant for the present study is Grieve et al. [2017], who analyse ongoing lexical emergence in an 8.9 million words corpus of American Twitter data. From their data, they extract a total of 29 emerging lexemes that feature a high correlation coefficient (of the frequency of occurrence and the date of creation) over the whole year and that start off with a low overall frequency. They analyse these word forms concerning their parts of speech, word-formation process, time of origin, and competition with other lexemes. Their results suggest that emerging lexemes may be attested a long time before they increase in frequency and that their eventual spread follows the s-shaped curve (Blythe & Croft [2012], Nevalainen & Raumolin-Brunberg [2003: 53-55]) known from other linguistic phenomena (Grieve et al. [2017: 123-124]). Overall, they make the case for using large-scale web-based corpora for the analysis of lexical change, which the study at hand complies with. Grieve [2018] further analyses the “survival chances” of the lexemes identified by Grieve et al. [2017] over a longer time period and investigates which characteristics might contribute to their firm establishment. A similar attempt is made by Stewart & Eisenstein [2018], who try to predict word adoption on Reddit by early dissemination, and by Cole et al. [2017], who relate word adaptation to community size on Reddit. Even though this aspect would have also been interesting, the question of how this process plays out on Reddit has to be postponed to future research.

7A similar approach to lexical change in online communication is presented in Sang [2016]; he compares two methods of identifying neologisms and archaisms by applying them to two different corpora (Dutch magazines and Dutch tweets). In the first method, Sang compares the initial and final relative frequency of the lexemes in question, whereas in the second method, he calculates a correlation coefficient of the relative frequencies over different time periods (Sang [2016: 3-4]). He argues that both approaches can be used in tandem, since they produce different sets of rising and falling words. The neologisms he identifies are mainly English loan words into Dutch or results of spelling reforms (Sang [2016: 8]). Instead of comparing two methodologies, the present study focuses on applying and enhancing the second approach, which mostly overlaps with the description by Grieve et al. [2017].

8Some studies also approach the issue of lexical emergence from a different perspective. Del Tredici & Fernández [2018], for example, investigate linguistic innovations on Reddit from a sociolinguistic viewpoint, based on Milroy’s network theory. Their findings, covering a number of topical sub-fora known as “subreddits”, suggest that linguistic ‘innovators’ are characterized as central members of each subreddit with weak-tie connections to other users, whereas ‘adaptors’, who are essential for the spread of a new item, have strong-tie connections to their specific sub-group (Del Tredici & Fernández [2018: 1]). Eisenstein et al. [2014], on the other hand, provide an analysis of lexical change on social media from the perspective of language change. Their corpus of American Twitter data reveals that innovations spread geographically from bigger to smaller cities within the United States, but that demographic similarity, especially ethnicity, also plays a substantial role in the dissemination of new lexical items (Eisenstein et al. [2014: 10]). These studies remind other researchers to keep extralinguistic factors, such as race, social network, or spatial proximity, in mind when investigating neologisms in computer-mediated communication (if this information is available).

9This short overview shows how lexical emergence, its sociolinguistic and geographic aspects, have been investigated, primarily on Twitter. However, it remains unclear whether the same principles hold true for other online platforms. The present study fills this gap in knowledge by applying Grieve’s methodology to the online forum Reddit, which is described in more detail within the next section.

1.2. Reddit

10The internet platform Reddit was founded in 2005 by Alexis Ohanian and Steve Huffmann. It is currently the fifth most visited website in the United States and consists of over 130,000 active communities [Reddit Inc. 2020]. The site is a “social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website” [Medvedev et al. 2017: 184] that can be viewed and joined for free. Content created by the users, also known as “redditors”, can be voted up or down by fellow users, while a reward system credits popular posts and comments with “karma”. On both Reddit and Twitter communication takes places asynchronously and both platforms have an upper character limit (40,000 characters for Reddit, 140 for Twitter in 2013). Furthermore, both allow for textual as well as visual modes of communication.

11But there are also several important differences. Reddit is a highly anonymous platform, which makes it difficult to consider sociolinguistic metadata, whereas Twitter is more person-orientated. In addition, Reddit has a more differentiated internal structure with a plethora of subreddits covering a variety of topics. The participant characteristics as well as the tone and topic of the conversations vary heavily between these subreddits, which can be interpreted as individual communities of practice (Del Tredici & Fernández [2017: 3]). The illustration below (Figure 1) provides an example of a Reddit post followed by comments, taken from the subreddit “r/linguistics”:

Figure 1. Illustration of Reddit comment structure, taken from r/linguistics

Figure 1. Illustration of Reddit comment structure, taken from r/linguistics

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12Interested readers are also referred to the “Pushshift” website (Baumgartner [2020]), which contains frequently updated statistics on Reddit contributions and activity, as well as an overview of the most popular subreddits and contributors.

13The following sub-sections provide an in-depth description of methodological steps employed for gathering the results presented in Section 3. This includes notes on the corpus used, the processing of the data, as well as ethical considerations. This detailed account is necessary to enhance accountability and reproducibility, a goal every linguistic study should aim for (see Weller & Kinder-Kurlanda [2016: 168]).

2.1. The Pushshift Reddit Dataset

14The data used in the study at hand is part of the Pushshift Reddit Dataset (Baumgartner et al. [2020]). The collection contains “all submissions and comments posted on Reddit between June 2005 and April 2019” [Baumgartner et al. 2020: 832]. The data is provided in JSON format. Each data point contains the raw text, as well as metadata consisting of the comment id, username, date of publication, status of the author, date of retrieval, subreddit id, and whether the comment was edited, archived, or classified as “controversial”. The uniqueness of this data set has been noted by several researchers, for example Weller & Kinder-Kurlanda [2016: 168], who discuss several approaches of sharing social media data.

15While the large size of this data set is an asset, there are also some disadvantages that need to be taken into account. First of all, even though Reddit is an English platform, there are some contributions in other languages, which might lead to foreign language items interfering in the analysis. Furthermore, one cannot be sure whether the users are native speakers of English or not – deviant spellings or word usages might therefore not be innovations, but simply learner errors. Medvedev et al. [2018: 4] justly point out some further problems with the data set in question: considerable amounts of comments and posts appear to be missing in several years. However, they conclude that “[t]he risks of mis-sampled data are obvious, but in large scale studies they may be safely disregarded due to their smallness” [Medvedev et al. 2018: 4]. This is taken to be the case for the present study as well.

2.2. Data processing

16The Pushshift Reddit Dataset data, which is sorted into months, was downloaded using the programme “μtorrent” (BitTorrent Inc. [2018]) and then unpacked using the “7-Zip” software (Pavlov [2018]). As a next step, all metadata was removed from the comments to yield monthly files with the raw text only. Afterwards, the “AntConc” programme (Anthony [2018]) was employed to create wordlists of each monthly sub-corpus. This proved to be a challenge for the application since the monthly data sets were up to 659 MB large. All the remaining steps were conducted with the help of R, a “language and environment for statistical computing and graphics” [R Core Team 2020]. Since the analysis by Grieve et al. [2017] is based on data from 2013 and 2014, the year 2013 was chosen as the temporal frame for all subsequent steps.

17In their study, after gathering the data, Grieve et al. [2017: 103] then select the top 67,022 items for further analysis, which remained after choosing a minimum occurrence of 1,000 items as a cut-off point. Since the corpus in the present study was considerably smaller (13 million words compared to 8.9 billion words), a different threshold had to be chosen. As the smallest monthly data set of the year in question (April 2013) contains 6,960 word forms only, it was decided to pick the top 6,960 most frequent word forms from each monthly data set. This is of course a random line that could be drawn at any other number to produce a larger or smaller set of results. Drawing the line after the top 6,960 most frequent word forms, however, minimizes the number of empty slots in the calculations to follow.

18In line with Grieve et al. [2017: 103-104], word forms were not lemmatized, and spelling variants were also treated as distinct items, since “alternative forms, including variant spellings, can often have different meanings or social distributions” [Grieve et al. 2017: 104]. Also similar to Grieve et al. [2017: 104], polysemous and homonymous words were not treated as separate items – an approach that can, of course, be questioned. Another question of interest at this point is what qualifies as a “word”. Grieve et al. [2017: 103] define word forms as “a string of alphabetical characters plus hyphens, insensitive to case”. The AntConc settings for the present study were therefore chosen to be case-insensitive and to treat any string of letters as a word.

19It should also be noted that Grieve et al.’s [2017: 99] original intention was to analyse onomasiological change (“change in the way concepts are named, including the formation of new words”) only, but they later [2017: 122] discuss whether semasiological changes (established words adding a new meaning) should be included within the analysis (following the definition of onomasiological change by Geeraerts [2006: 38], which comprises semasiological change). Grieve et al. [2017: 122] rightly state that their methodology is unable to provide a full account of the semasiological changes taking place due to the higher initial frequency of the established word forms. Consequently, the word forms stemming from semasiological change that do appear in the results will not be disregarded, but no aspirations will be made to capture all semasiological changes taking place within the data set.

20In accordance with the methodological steps outlined in Grieve et al. [2017: 103-107], the relative frequency per million words (hence pmw) was then calculated for all 6,960 word forms for every month of 2013. Using a Spearman rank correlation coefficient, the developments of the frequencies over the twelve months were then computed. On this basis, word forms starting off with a low relative frequency (less than 200 pmw in January) and increasing at a high rate during the year (correlation coefficient at least 0.5) were selected. This resulted in a list of 98 word forms, which are displayed in Figure 2 below, distributed by their correlation coefficient and their overall relative frequency in 2013.

Figure 2. Relation of relative frequency to correlation coefficient

Figure 2. Relation of relative frequency to correlation coefficient

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21The next step was to exclude proper nouns (like France) and established words (like female). Grieve et al. [2017: 107] cite “included in standard dictionaries” as their criterium for the latter. In accordance, the OED online (Oxford University Press [2020]) was used to check whether the usage of the established words on Reddit was covered by the dictionary entry or whether there were indications for semasiological change. After this sorting, a total of eight potential emerging lexical items remained.

2.3. Ethical considerations

22Like every other study investigating natural language, studies on computer-mediated communication must properly consider the ethics of their procedure (Page et al. [2014: 58-59]). In the online environment, especially the privacy of the users is of relevance. Since in the present study only the raw text without any metadata (such as date of publication, subreddit, or username) is the object of analysis, anonymity is not an issue. However, even if the privacy of Reddit users can be guaranteed, the question of informed consent is likely to remain as unclear as in many other studies on social media data (Weller & Kinder-Kurlanda [2016: 169]). In their “Privacy Policy”, Reddit [2020] states as follows:

When you submit content [...] to the Services, any visitors to and users of our Services will be able to see that content, the username associated with the content, and the date and time you originally submitted the content. [...] Reddit also allows third parties to access public Reddit content via the Reddit API and via other similar technologies.

23Based on this statement, one would expect Reddit users to be aware that the texts they produce might be accessed by other parties, including researchers.

24In the following sections, the emerging lexemes are shortly commented on, before their formal and semantic characteristics are described and illustrated in detail.

3.1. Identified emerging lexemes

25The results can be viewed in Table 1 below, which displays the identified items, examples from the corpus, the respective correlation coefficient, an OED definition, and their specific use on Reddit that is not covered by the OED. Six of the eight items qualify for Grieve et al.’s [2017: 99] original intention of analysing onomasiological change, since an existing concept is assigned a new name or a new word is created for a new concept: iv, mod, mods, bot (lane), split (push), bronze. The other two appear to represent semasiological change, which includes established words adding a new meaning: flair and supports.

Table 1. Overview of potential emerging lexemes on Reddit

Word form

Coeffi-cient

Example

OED-definition

Meaning in Reddit

bronze

0.59

the former bronze player / I’m bronze

(only for bronze as noun, bronzed/bronzen as adjective)

used as an adjective to describe the rank of players in the game “League of Legends” (other ranks are silver, gold, platinum, diamond)

iv

0.77

can offer a 5 IV eevee / give you 3 5 IV pokemon

short for intravenously

abbreviation for individual values, a strength score in the game “Pokémon”

supports

0.58

for most supports it’s your job to / all kind of junglers/supports

the action or result of supporting, the action of supporting other armed forces, esp. by a second line of troops; organized assistance in a military, naval, or air force operation

denotes a certain role of players in multi-player games

flair

0.76

you need gray flair or better / flair up / please add flair to your post

power of ‘scent’, sagacious perceptiveness, instinctive discernment. Also: special aptitude or ability; liking, taste, enthusiasm

an optional picture or phrase that can be attached to a user’s name within a specific subreddit

split (push / pusher)

0.69

split pushing capability / a great splitpusher

a narrow break or opening made by splitting; a cleft, crack, rent, or chink; a fissure, A division formed by splitting

(to)split push, a tactic used in multi-player games in which one player splits away from the group

mod

0.64

vote for you as a mod / how we mod / release the mod

short for modification

mod/mods refer both to modifications made to computer games and to users assigned the role of a moderator within a subreddit

mods

0.52

the mods of this subreddit / install the mods accordingly

short for modifications

bot

(lane)

0.67

posted by a bot / defeats botlane / we can push hard bot

short for bot (an automated program on a network, often having features that mimic human reasoning and decision-making; a program designed to respond or behave like a human); a software agent; short for bottom

robots imitating humans in online interactions, also a short version of bottom in the compound bottom lane (a route on the map of multi-player games)

26It should also be noted that all identified items (or their homonyms) have an entry in the Oxford English Dictionary, which however does not contain the specific way in which the items are used on Reddit (alongside their traditional sense). Inspection of the concordance lines also suggests that bot and split are not single-word units, but part of a compound (bot lane, split push/pusher/pushing). The following section therefore looks at the multi-word units as a whole and divides them into their components when necessary.

3.2. Formal characteristics

27Now the formal characteristics of the identified word forms are described along the same lines used by Grieve et al. [2017: 107-120]. Looking at their word class, one can see that all forms except the adjective bronze are used as nouns, and that mod, split push and flair have an additional use as verbs (examples (01) to (03), emphasis added). This is not surprising, since nouns and verbs are open word classes which readily adopt new members.

(01) how do I flair up? (Dec 2013)

(02) I mod my reddit because I think its amusing to see the content people make on the subject I enjoy (Jan 2013)

(03) If that doesn’t work you can either split push, dive them on the turret, or [...] (Jun 2013)

28Moving on to their word formation processes, bot (lane), mod, and mods appear to be the result of truncation. iv is the only example of an alphabetism, while the adjective bronze and the verbal use of mod/mods seem to result from conversion. Bot lane and split push are furthermore instances of compounding, whereas supports and flair are not formed by a word formation process, since an additional meaning has been added to an existing lexeme. In the case of flair, it appears that the new sense (“tag next to a username”) originates from metaphoric extension of the old sense (“special aptitude or ability”) [Traugott & Dasher 2002: 28]. The common characteristic in this case would be ‘a feature that makes the possessor stand out’. For supports, metonymic extension (Traugott & Dasher [2002: 28]) from a general concept (“organised assistance in a military operation”) to an individual associated with the concept (“role of players in computer games”) seems to have taken place.

29To analyse their recency, each of the word forms was searched for on Google Trends (Google Trends [2020]) and in the Urban Dictionary (Urban Dictionary [2020]), as it is done by Grieve et al. [2017: 110-111]. The results can be viewed in Table 2. One can see that some of the meanings (bronze, supports, split push, bot lane) appear to be so specific to the gaming community that they do not have an entry in the Urban Dictionary. The Google Trends tendencies, on the other hand, seem to be in line with the analysis so far, since some of the items feature an increase around the year 2013 (bronze, split push, mod, mods, bot lane), which could point to the emergence of the new usage. In total, the table shows that the new senses are either attested prior to their increasing frequency on Reddit or too specific to surface elsewhere.

Table 2. The emerging lexemes on Google Trends and the Urban Dictionary

Word

Urban dictionary

Google Trends

bronze

-

slight increase since 2012

IV

2009

no noticeable increase/decrease

supports

-

no noticeable increase/decrease

flair

2008

increase since 2016

split (push)

-

no noticeable increase/decrease,

split push increase after 2011

mod/mods

2003

increase from 2010 to 2014, then decrease

bot (lane)

(robot: 2002)

no noticeable increase/decrease, bot lane since 2011

30Figure 3 now illustrates the change in relative frequency over the course of 2013 for each of the identified items. The trajectories show that the patterns are quite distinct from one another. While iv, flair, and bot only appear to increase at the end of the year (and potentially include considerable outliers in the data), the other items do not seem to follow any regular pattern. Some graphs can be explained by topicality trends due to major events during 2013: for example, the steep increase in the use of iv and flair is probably related to the release of a new edition of the “Pokémon” game in October of that year and the subsequent trading of the game’s creatures on certain subreddits.

Figure 3. Frequency development of emerging lexemes in 2013

Figure 3. Frequency development of emerging lexemes in 2013

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31Summing up, one could say that most identified emerging lexemes belong to the expected word class of nouns and are formed by standard word formation processes (or add a meaning to an established word). Regarding their recent nature, some of the new uses appear to be attested before their rise in frequency. Looking at their trajectories during the year 2013 revealed different patterns of increase, which are likely to be related to their topicality, i.e. their relevance for certain events during the year. Based on these formal characteristics, it is now worth looking at the semantics in more detail.

3.3. Semantic characteristics

32In this section, the semantics of the lexemes in question are considered. Readers might have noticed that the items appear to originate from two semantic domains only: online communication (flair, mod, mods) and gaming (bot lane, mod, mods, split push, supports, iv, bronze). This corresponds to other studies on Reddit, for example Kershaw et al. [2016] on language acceptance online, who also find many innovative word forms on Reddit and Twitter related to gaming language. While all of the lexemes theoretically qualify as “slang” (using the definition by Malmkjær [2010: 489]), most of them might be better described as “jargon” since they belong to the “specialist terminology” [Malmkjær 2010: 490] of the online gaming community or the Reddit community.

33Worth investigating is also the “onomasiological competition with other lexical items” [Grieve et al. 2017: 117] for the analysed word forms. Some of them (supports, split push, bronze, flair) denote a specific concept and do not appear to have any obvious synonyms. Others (bot lane, mod, mods, iv) can be compared to their uncontracted parent forms. Figures 4 to 6 below illustrate the frequency developments of those word forms in 2013. It should be noted that the graphs show the development in frequency pmw for each item, instead of the percentages of each variable that Grieve et al. [2017: 117] calculate, due to the lexical ambiguity of the items, which makes it difficult to conceptualize them as variants of one lexical variable only.

Figure 4. Onomasiological competition of bot and bottom

Figure 4. Onomasiological competition of bot and bottom

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Figure 5. Onomasiological competition of mod, mods, moderate, and moderators

Figure 5. Onomasiological competition of mod, mods, moderate, and moderators

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Figure 6. Onomasiological competition of iv, individual, value, and values

Figure 6. Onomasiological competition of iv, individual, value, and values

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34Considering iv and the words individual and value/values, the data suggests that there might also be a slight increase in the unreduced word forms as iv takes off. However, inspection of concordance lines for December does not reveal a single instance of individual and value/values being used together – this is therefore not an instance of competition. For mod and mods, as well as bot and bottom, the situation is more complex due to word class ambiguity and semantic ambiguity. While the substitution seems to be complete for the verb moderate, the plural form moderators is more frequent than its shortened equivalent mods (the singular form moderator, as well as modify and modification, are not part of the selected data set and cannot be compared).

35Inspection of concordance lines does not indicate any semasiological change of the word forms resulting from onomasiological change during the year 2013. In conclusion, analysing the semantic characteristics of the emerging lexemes reveals that they stem from the semantic domains of online communication and online gaming, they can be described as either jargon or slang, and that their meaning does not appear to change during the time period investigated. Analysing their onomasiological competition shows that some lexemes are already institutionalised to a degree that they are no longer in competition with their uncontracted forms (bot, iv, mod), while others appear to be more interchangeable still (mods).

36The results presented in the previous section are now discussed in the light of findings by other researchers, most importantly the findings by Grieve et al. [2017]. The section focuses on the emerging word forms and their characteristics first, before commenting on the methodology proposed by Grieve et al. [2017].

4.1. Emerging lexemes

37Looking at the formal characteristics first, the emerging lexemes identified in the Pushshift Reddit Dataset have several things in common with the items identified by Grieve et al. [2017] in their Twitter corpus. Both studies find that emerging lexemes belong to open word classes, especially nouns (Grieve et al. [2017: 108]). Their word formation processes are also similar in that mostly standard processes, particularly truncation, are used (Grieve et al. [2017: 108-109]). Grieve et al. [2017: 110] also find several instances of acronymization in their Twitter data, whereas only one (iv) is identified within the data set at hand. This might be due to the fact that Twitter has a lower character limit that motivates concise language, whereas Reddit allows for more characters. Grieve et al. [2017: 110-112] furthermore find that emerging lexemes might be attested and used infrequently for a long time before they increase in frequency. For those words that are attested outside of Reddit, this statement can be confirmed by the present analysis.

38One noticeable difference, however, concerns the rate of the frequency change. Grieve et al. [2017: 112-117] claim that “the rate of change speeds up steadily over time” for most items, and that subsequently the frequencies either stabilize or decline again. They interpret these findings as proof for their hypothesis that language change online proceeds along the same s-shaped curves attested for ‘offline’ language change. The analysis at hand, however, reveals highly irregular patterns of frequency change. There are several possible explanations for this inconsistency: On the one hand, is it possible that the monthly structure of the Reddit data set is not able to adequately show the rate of change; a daily data set like the one used by Grieve et al. [2017] would be less prone to pick up such irregular patterns (see also the discussion of ‘granularity’, or “level of resolution” of the data by Gries [2012: 188]). On the other hand, it is possible that the rate of change is correlated to the idiosyncrasies of the online platform investigated, or that the theory does not apply (meaning that language change online does not follow s-shaped curves). At the moment, the structure of the data set seems the more plausible explanation.

39Moving on to the semantic characteristics of the emerging lexemes, one can see that the semantic domains of the emerging lexemes on Twitter and Reddit are quite distinct. Grieve et al. [2017: 108] state that their items stem from the areas of “profanity and insult”, “recreational drug use”, “social media”, and “family and friends”. The word forms in the present analysis, on the other hand, belong to the areas of online gaming and online communication. This discrepancy can be explained by the special characteristics of the medium, its purpose and its users. While both platforms seem to be popular with younger, urban people (Eisenstein et al. [2014: 2], Duggan & Smith [2013]), Reddit is more topically organized and used as a discussion platform especially by the gaming community. This can be seen, for example, by looking at the most popular discussion topics on Reddit as presented by the “Pushshift” website (Baumgartner [2020]). At the time of writing, the most active subreddits include (among others): “r/gaming”, “r/leagueoflegends”, and “r/FortNiteBR”.

40This divergence can also explain the language domains the emerging word forms belong to. While Grieve et al. [2017: 107-108] classify all their results as slang, this is only partially true for the items at hand. Most of them could be better categorized as technical jargon for online games and online communication. Similar is, however, that both studies reveal complex relationships between the emerging lexemes and their near synonyms (Grieve et al. [2017: 117-119]). Furthermore, the study at hand is unable to identify semasiological change (for the word forms resulting from onomasiological change) during the period investigated and Grieve et al. [2017: 119-120] only find one instance of this (on fleek).

41In sum, the present analysis is able to confirm most of the findings by Grieve et al. [2017]. It is also found, however, that some characteristics of the emerging lexemes (semantic domain, language domain, and potentially also the rate of change) are closely connected to the individual character and properties of the online platform investigated. This context-dependence of lexical change was previously only attested for the offline environment. For example, Geeraerts et al. [2012: 128] emphasize how text type influences the emergence of the lexeme anger, and Hilpert [2012: 153-156] elaborates on the effect of genre on collostructional development. The results therefore highlight the danger of generalizing from one online platform to computer-mediated communication on the whole.

4.2. Methodology

42This section now comments on the methodology described by Grieve et al. [2017] and employed in this study. The observations are presented roughly in the order of the corresponding methodological steps.

43One aspect that Grieve et al. [2017: 104] arguably do not pay enough attention to is word class ambiguity, as well as polysemy and homonymy. If a word form belongs to several word classes or has several distinct meanings (for example mod) the frequency increase is distorted, since the different usages might show different frequency patterns. To solve the problem of word class ambiguity, it could be possible to run a parts-of-speech tagger over the data prior to the creation of the ranked wordlists. This might, however, not be as easy as it seems, since most taggers are likely to not accurately classify emerging lexemes (see also Liimatta [2016: 21]). By way of trial, the TagAnt programme (Anthony [2016]) was applied to one of the monthly sub-corpora to illustrate the misclassification. Examples (04)-(05) show the result of this tagging, giving only the tags for the lexeme mod, which is classified as a noun in both comments, despite serving as a verb in the second utterance:

(04) You reported me for “man hating” and had your mensrights loser mod_NN ban me from advice animals (June 2013)

(05) You have to mod_NN the game (June 2013)

44After the preparation of the list with potential emerging lexemes, Grieve et al. [2017: 107] winnow the items and remove all established words. As a criterion they name “words that are included in standard dictionaries”. This appears to be a rather arbitrary selection criterion, since the resulting word forms will depend heavily on which dictionary is used and how up to date the entries are. It is, however, more systematic than the mere subjective judgement used by Stewart & Eisenstein [2018: 3]. In their study on language acceptance, Kershaw et al. [2016] employ a different method: for them, a word is classified as an innovation only if it has no search results in the British National Corpus. Using a linguistic corpus for comparison seems reasonable, since it reflects actual language usage instead of a lexicographer’s perspective of language usage. The question which corpus to use depends on which online platform and which time period is being studied. For the analysis of Twitter and Reddit in 2013, the Corpus of Contemporary American English (Davies [2019]) appears to be a good choice, since it covers the year in question and contains written and spoken American English – the national variety both platforms are rooted in.

45From the description by Grieve et al. [2017: 107] it furthermore remains unclear whether only the surface form was compared or whether the actual usage of a word form on Twitter was compared to the word senses listed in the dictionary. The present study shows how important it is to evaluate in detail the semantics within the corpus and the semantics attested elsewhere. Only that way can newly emerging meanings for established word forms be discovered as well. So far, there appears to be no reliable method absolving the researcher working with quantitative approaches from manual inspection of the concordance lines for the word forms in question (but see Sagi et al. [2012] for promising advancements towards the automatic detection of semasiological change).

46As a further point, Grieve et al. [2017: 103] acknowledge that their methodology only allows for the detection of single-word units, which does not result in a comprehensive account of the lexical change taking place (as seen for split push and bot lane); Sang [2016: 8] encounters the same problem, as do many automatic neologism detection programs (Kerremans & Prokić [2018: 264]). Close inspection of concordance lines or using a collocates analysis tool can reveal emerging compounds or phrases as well. A further candidate for an emerging collocation is provided in examples (06)-(07), which was detected by having a closer look at the increasing frequency of the established lexeme awkward.

(06) Insert Socially Awkward Penguin meme here. (Jan 2013)

(07) I’m an awkward penguin in real life (Dec 2013)

47To sum up, the methodology described by Grieve et al. [2017] is used effectively within this paper to detect onomasiological change and is expanded to incorporate instances of semasiological change as well. Some recommendations can nevertheless be made, including the comparison with a corpus instead of a dictionary and the use of a tagging programme to solve the problem of word class ambiguity. On a more general note, this analysis emphasises the pivotal importance of close inspection of concordance lines in order to detect all different usages and potential compound forms of an item.

48For convenience, the two research questions stated at the beginning are repeated below:
(i) Are the characteristics of emerging lexemes on Reddit similar to the characteristics of emerging lexemes on Twitter as identified by Grieve et al. [2017]?
Regarding the first question, the analysis shows that the emerging lexemes are overall similar concerning their formal and semantic characteristics. While most of the discrepancies can be explained by the individual character of the online platform used (which provides support for the context-dependence of lexical emergence), the question of the rate of change remains unanswered.

49(ii) How applicable is the methodology outlined by Grieve et al. [2017] for the study of lexical emergence in a different online platform, Reddit?
Turning to the second question, the methodology proves to successfully identify newly emerging word forms and new meanings of established words. However, it needs to be mentioned that the precision of the method is relatively low, as a considerable number of established words are also identified as results as well (a problem also common in automatic neologism detection, see Kerremans & Prokić [2018: 251]). Some suggestions are made concerning the methodological steps; these concern the point of orientation for classifying a word form as “established”, the general importance of concordance line inspection, and an attempt at resolving the problem of word class disambiguation. This paper therefore tries not to invalidate the methodology but to make future researchers aware of the caveats and to suggest some possible amendments.

50However, one also has to keep the limitations of the present study in mind. First of all, the Reddit data set is considerably smaller than that used by Grieve et al. [2017] and might include partial sampling errors, which could have led to slightly biased results. Furthermore, the different temporal resolutions (monthly instead of daily data sets) are likely to have statistical repercussions. These drawbacks notwithstanding, the present study is able to contribute to the state of knowledge in several ways: It tests and revises a relatively effective methodology for the comprehensive analysis of lexical emergence in the online environment with the help of large-scale corpora. It also illustrates the specific lexical characteristics of the online platform Reddit, especially in comparison to Twitter. More research on lexical emergence in the online environment is nevertheless needed. Further studies could widen the scope to other online platforms. An obvious next step would also be to extend the temporal limit of one year and see how a variation in the time frame affects the resulting lexemes (a first step in this direction has already been taken by Sang [2016] for Twitter).

Top of pageSours: https://journals.openedition.org/lexis/4917
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Whether you’re looking for ways to save on vacation or trim your budget, you’ll find a wealth of information on Reddit. But how can you tell what’s legit and what’s a little less realistic?

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If you’re on Reddit sifting through threads to try and find the best tips to save money, look no further. GOBankingRates has compiled the best budgeting hacks users have offered so you don’t have to go searching for what has the most upvotes. 

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Advice: “Use the public library for books, ebooks, movies, audiobooks, online courses. Everyone knows about it but it seems like more could use it.”

Because of the internet, some of the advantages of libraries might have been forgotten — but they’re a free resource that offer so much. You don’t even have to go down to the library to benefit — just download an app like Libby to download ebooks directly to your phone or other reading device. 

Many libraries also have subscriptions to publications so you can browse articles on their computers without don’t having to pay for them. Some libraries even offer technology like 3D printers for free that you would be costly to use elsewhere. And though you may associate libraries with the “shhhh!” sound, many offer classes and programs — from knitting to personal budgeting — that don’t require you to zip your lips upon arrival.

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Advice: “The 72 hour rule’ is pretty helpful. If you want something that is not a necessity, instead of buying it immediately, add it to a list or spreadsheet, then wait 72 hours. If after 72 hours, you still want it, then you can buy it. It seems that 80-90% of the time, after the 72 hours is up, I don’t end up buying the item I thought I wanted. The reason I like doing it with a spreadsheet is then I can at the end of the year how much money I DIDN’T impulsively spend.”

  • Submitted by: Icarus_Jones

This tip will help you stay safe from making purchases because of boredom or trendy ads on social media. Chances are, you won’t even remember some of the stuff you bookmarked 72 hours later, let alone want to buy it. Giving yourself some time before you hit “buy” ensures you’re purchasing things that really matter to you and are truly worth your money. Plus, if you choose to add items to your cart and then step away from it while online shopping and, some sites might give you a discount as an incentive to buy. So for the items you really want, you might get a good deal as well.

Watch Out: Don’t Fall Into the Instagram Money Trap — Here’s How To Get Rid of FOMO

Advice: “Don’t buy something that you normally wouldn’t buy just because you have a coupon.”

Just because something is a good deal doesn’t mean you need to own it. Consider if you would have bought the item even if it was full price. If the answer is yes, then the coupon just makes it better. If the answer is no, put the coupon away and save money for stuff you really want. 

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Advice: “Instead of using Instacart, see if your local stores have pickup service. You still get to avoid going in so you are less susceptible to impulse buys, but you save huge dollars by not using the third party delivery.”

Delivery fees start at $3.99 for orders that are $35 or more for Instacart, and go up depending on how quickly you need your shopping delivered. That $3.99 might seem worth it for ease, but adds up over time, especially if you’re getting groceries delivered frequently. This hack allows you to avoid seeing something in the store and buying it simply because it looks good, and also eliminates the service fee of a delivery service. 

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Advice: “Lots of jobs have the option of auto deductions to savings accounts from your paycheck. Send $X or X% of every check to a savings account at a separate bank from your checking. Then, don’t have a debit card for the savings account: force yourself to go to the bank in person to withdraw cash.”

  • Submitted by: harrison_wintergreen

With this tip, savings is built into your paycheck without you having to think about it. This way, you can use your entire paycheck to pay bills and spend on things you need without having to budget for savings on top of it. This also ensures that a certain amount will be put into savings every month without the temptation to spend it. 

Read More: Corn Flakes, Mountain Dew and 9 Other Beloved Brands With a Twisted History

Advice: “My husband and I only pay for things in cash other than bills. It takes a higher level of consciousness to shell out $7-10 cash for fast food than just swiping a card.”

Whenever you get paid, consider withdrawing all of your spending money you’ve budgeted. Physically feeling and seeing the money suddenly gives it more value and most likely, you won’t make as many impulse purchases. 

More From GOBankingRates

Last updated: Oct. 15. 2021

This article originally appeared on GOBankingRates.com: The Best Reddit Hacks To Save Money

Sours: https://finance.yahoo.com/news/best-reddit-hacks-save-money-211739212.html
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Stuck indoors during lockdown, Miami resident Sullyng Ceballos missed the clarity that long walks gave her.

“Usually, whenever I’d feel stressed or had a lot of things on my mind, going outside would help drown the thoughts out,” says Ceballos, a 28-year-old attorney, who had begun working from home in early March. Miami had just reported its first Covid-19 cases, and Ceballos was in the high-risk category. Her employers encouraged her to take all precautions.

A couple of weeks into the After, with nowhere to go but the inside of her own head, Ceballos decided to process her emotions on the page instead. She started journaling for the first time. “It was the only way for me to really express myself,” she recalls. “I’m an attorney so I’ve legal pads all over the house. I just picked one up and started writing.”

About 9,000 miles away, in Bangalore, Janani Vaidya dug up a once-discarded diary.

“I was picking up more projects and getting busier, and a couple of months into the lockdown, my mental health was taking a pretty drastic hit,” says Vaidya, who felt overwhelmed and jittery, and exhausted by “waking up every morning feeling like I was drowning.”

Desperate to find an outlet, Vaidya began journaling in June. “Consistency is not my forte, so I didn’t tell myself that I would do it every day,” they wrote over email. “I just left the journal on my desk as a reminder, and it’s a thing I go back to almost every day. ... This is the longest that I have kept going back to it.”

Like Ceballos, Vaidya found that the process gave them a sense of calm and clarity, despite whatever fresh chaos was unfolding outside.

It’s a popular sentiment. Since cities worldwide began sheltering in place one after the other, there has been a rise in the number of people taking up journaling — trying it for the first time, or returning after years. The reasons have been many: boredom, an outlet for stress, the need for structure, or simply to document a very odd, very complicated moment in time. Every other Zoom workshop seems to focus on some version of “creative journaling.” Online groups dedicated to the hobby are being swarmed with posts from beginners.

“I think journaling is like going through a closet bursting with clothes. Before you can even begin cleaning it, you have to dump all the stuff on the floor and just look at it. That’s what you’re doing in the beginning,” says a reply to a newbie’s post in the journaling forum on Reddit. “So don’t worry about doing it right/wrong, your goal is to just look at your thoughts laid out, instead of it being cramped up in the head.”

A bunch of first-timers have posted on the subreddit, among the many digital communities dedicated to journaling, over the past few months: asking for advice, swapping stationery recommendations, and coming back to share updates on how it’s been working for them. Suggested prompts help on occasions when the days seem to have mashed together into one gray blob, a frequent experience during lockdown.

Some go all out with the washi tape and colored pens and Leuchtturms; others stick to good old-fashioned “streams of consciousness lite” in exercise notebooks. There are detailed descriptions of the day, habit trackers, and mood logs, and then there are entries like the one posted by a journaler struggling with depression:

5.21pm. I ate.

There are plenty of places online besides forums for journalers to swap ideas and learn from one another. Journaling workshops — paid and unpaid — via Zoom have flourished. Ceballos participates in twice-a-week sessions organized by an online community called Goddess Council, where members get journaling prompts — a helpful tool for beginners and the experienced alike.

As a result of this uptick, stationery companies have reported a bump in journal sales. “We’ve seen a significant bump in sales of journals and notebooks over the last four-five months,” says a representative from the California-based company ban.do. “We’re up 37.5 percent [year-on-year] in the notebook/journal category.” New York-based Peter Pauper Press has seen increased sales in dot-matrix format journals, as well as oversize and book-bound journals, says the company’s sales director, Claudine Gandolfi. “Those are generally used by dedicated journalers, not someone looking for a notebook.”

Journaling isn’t just a fun hobby — it’s a mechanism that’s frequently incorporated in therapy. It can be an important tool to explore inner conflicts, rant in a safe way, or figure out a difficult decision, says clinical psychologist Andrea Medaris. “During pandemic, I think maybe the most useful thing about journaling is that it helps create a narrative, a sense that life continues and that it is moving forward, even in a time of stuckness. It’s very easy to feel that time has paused, so making something that shows the progression from yesterday to today to tomorrow can bring a sense of hope and momentum.”

At a time when many of us have been feeling powerless, the very act of bothering to write down your thoughts is a way of telling yourself that you matter, adds Medaris. It “tells yourself implicitly that those thoughts matter, that your voice matters. That is doubly important in a time where many of us feel like our voices are insignificant.”

The first entry in Xochitl Estrada’s diary is dated March 19, 2020 — the day the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was predicting high numbers of casualties from the coronavirus. A student research assistant living in Weslaco, Texas, Estrada was worried for the city’s large Latino population, which is socioeconomically disadvantaged, she says, with limited access to medical resources. “I knew we would be in trouble. No one pays attention to this area of the United States. We are hit with hurricanes, and often do not make national news.”

The endless lines, empty shelves, and palpable sense of dread made Estrada realize early on that this was not going to be a simple epidemic. Wandering through the aisles among panicked shoppers, she recalled reading diary entries made during the Spanish flu, from her undergrad epidemiology classes.

“Those documentations are the reason we know so much about what occurred during that pandemic,” she says. It inspired her to start something similar of her own for future generations, “so that they may not forget this moment in history.”

Every night, Estrada pulls out her quad notebook from Walmart, turns on the lamp, and documents the day in detail before going to bed. She carefully notes the changes she has observed around her — the panic-buying, universities shutting down, workers still needing to head out every day, the uncertainty of everything.

As part of this drive to document the moment, journaling projects and collectives are popping up as well. “More and more anti maskers are pissing me off. It feels like they only care about themselves,” says a September 14 journal entry by Steph. “Why do they think it’s okay to protest but Black Lives Matter protesters are ‘thugs’ and ‘doing things the wrong way’? Why is it okay to protest wearing a mask meant to protect the public from a deadly illness but not okay to protest for the right to live?”

Steph’s entry is among those from the “Archiving Covid-19” class at Rutgers University in New Jersey, started by writer and professor Audrey Truschke. Each week, curated excerpts from journal entries by 13 students from diverse backgrounds are uploaded on the university website.

“It was a way to document history in real time. The pandemic is all around us, it’s so much a part of our collective experience,” says Truschke, a fifth-generation member of a family of dedicated journalers, who has also contributed entries to the Rutgers project. She has digitized a couple of her great-great-grandmother’s oldest diaries, spanning 1941-1945, and also uses them while teaching as an example of archival sources.

“Her diaries now live in a box in my grandmother’s closet. I don’t know why she started writing them, no one knows. Maybe someone gave her a diary? She has no explanation, just starts like, hello diary,” Truschke recalls.

Along with being a rich source of family history, the diaries have helped serve a higher purpose: proving everyone else in the house wrong. “It’s kind of fun — we definitely have had family arguments like, ‘Where were we at Thanksgiving of 1994?’ and everyone gets out their journals and you compare and then you figure it out.”

I found my way back to journaling myself in early July, a few months after lockdown had shuttered Mumbai.

My mental health had gone to shit. I had managed to recover from Covid-19 with minimal (as of now!) lasting damage, so I should have been positively writhing with joy. But it was a struggle to see much of a reason for optimism. Several of my plans for 2020 had not worked out, or been put in stressful limbo, due to the pandemic. I felt anxious and gloomy and unmotivated, and had no idea how to start getting life at least somewhat back on track.

One afternoon, after days of aimless doomscrolling and morose Mad Men marathons, I decided to attempt a bit of self-care by making a habit tracker in an old notebook — a tool I remembered from my first and only stab at bullet journaling circa 2018, otherwise known as the most productive two weeks of my life.

This time around, I liked having a tangible reminder of things I was doing to look out for myself — starting with absolutely nothing more intimidating than drinking (or attempting to drink) two liters of water daily, moisturizing, having 30 minutes of no-screen time. I slowly upped the ante: cooking more often, 10 squats a day, making it to at least the second paragraph of a book before thoroughly abandoning it for Netflix. Soon, I had begun adding notes on my day, writing about whatever was bugging me or made me want to curl up into a very small ball. Having the words on paper somehow made the big fears seem smaller. They seemed manageable.

I’m unsure if I would count as a “dedicated journaler” yet, though I have been plenty surprised to find myself writing every single day. Of course, one of the entries just says “ugh,” but there’s something very peaceful about taking 10 minutes just to hash out whatever thought-jumble is clanging around in my brain, and for once, not have to stare at a screen while doing so. The other day I even attempted a (very rubbish) doodle.

Todd Smith is way more skilled at the art. The Buffalo resident and retail employee takes joy in creating lovely watercolor spreads of changing seasons in his journal. “I had never kept any sort of personal agenda or journal before in my life. Anytime I tried, I was noncommittal and would lose interest,” he tells me on Facebook Messenger. “But I’ve always been a big fan of art and kept seeing all these beautiful spreads people had created themselves and I wanted to emulate them. I wanted the creative outlet.”

Having needed to work through the pandemic, Smith used his journal to chronicle his mental health and create a quiet space that let him focus “mostly on trying to function ‘normally’ each day.”

I — and plenty of others — know exactly how he feels.

Sours: https://www.vox.com/the-goods/21542132/journaling-bullet-journal-coronavirus-pandemic
How to Use Reddit - Complete Beginner's Guide

Reddit

Social news aggregation, web content rating, livestreaming, and discussion platform

Not to be confused with Redditt.

Reddit (, stylized as reddit) is an American social newsaggregation, web content rating, and discussion website. Registered members submit content to the site such as links, text posts, images, and videos, which are then voted up or down by other members. Posts are organized by subject into user-created boards called "communities" or "subreddits", which cover a variety of topics such as news, politics, religion, science, movies, video games, music, books, sports, fitness, cooking, pets, and image-sharing. Submissions with more upvotes appear towards the top of their subreddit and, if they receive enough upvotes, ultimately on the site's front page. Although there are strict rules prohibiting harassment, it still occurs, and Reddit administrators moderate the communities and close or restrict them on occasion. Moderation is also conducted by community-specific moderators, who are not considered Reddit employees.[5]

As of September 2021, Reddit ranks as the 19th-most-visited website in the world and 7th most-visited website in the U.S., according to Alexa Internet.[6] About 42-49.3% of its user base comes from the United States, followed by the United Kingdom at 7.9-8.2% and Canada at 5.2-7.8%.[7][6] 22 percent of U.S. adults aged 18 to 29 years, and 14 percent of U.S. adults aged 30 to 49 years, regularly use Reddit.[7]

Reddit was founded by University of Virginia roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian, with Aaron Swartz, in 2005. Condé Nast Publications acquired the site in October 2006. In 2011, Reddit became an independent subsidiary of Condé Nast's parent company, Advance Publications.[8] In October 2014, Reddit raised $50 million in a funding round led by Sam Altman and including investors Marc Andreessen, Peter Thiel, Ron Conway, Snoop Dogg, and Jared Leto.[9] Their investment valued the company at $500 million then.[10][11] In July 2017, Reddit raised $200 million for a $1.8 billion valuation, with Advance Publications remaining the majority stakeholder.[12] In February 2019, a $300 million funding round led by Tencent brought the company's valuation to $3 billion.[13] In August 2021, a $700 million funding round led by Fidelity Investments raised that valuation to over $10 billion.[14]

History

Company history

Further information: Timeline of Reddit

The idea and initial development of Reddit originated with then college roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian in 2005. Huffman and Ohanian attended a lecture by programmer-entrepreneur Paul Graham in Boston, Massachusetts, during their spring break from University of Virginia.[15][16][17] After speaking with Huffman and Ohanian following the lecture, Graham invited the two to apply to his startup incubator Y Combinator.[15] Their initial idea, My Mobile Menu, was unsuccessful,[18][19] and was intended to allow users to order food by SMStext messaging.[15][16] During a brainstorming session to pitch another startup, the idea was created for what Graham called the "front page of the Internet".[19] For this idea, Huffman and Ohanian were accepted in Y Combinator's first class.[15][16] Supported by the funding from Y Combinator,[20] Huffman coded the site in Common Lisp[21] and together with Ohanian launched Reddit in June 2005.[22][23]

The team expanded to include Christopher Slowe in November 2005. Between November 2005 and January 2006, Reddit merged with Aaron Swartz's company Infogami, and Swartz became an equal owner of the resulting parent company, Not A Bug.[24][25] Ohanian later wrote that instead of labeling Swartz as a co-founder, the correct description is that Swartz's company was acquired by Reddit 6 months after he and Huffman had started.[26] Huffman and Ohanian sold Reddit to Condé Nast Publications, owner of Wired, on October 31, 2006, for a reported $10 million to $20 million[15][27] and the team moved to San Francisco.[28] In November 2006, Swartz blogged complaining about the new corporate environment, criticizing its level of productivity.[29] In January 2007, Swartz was fired for undisclosed reasons.[30]

Huffman and Ohanian left Reddit in 2009.[31] Huffman went on to co-found Hipmunk with Adam Goldstein, and later recruited Ohanian[32] and Slowe to his new company.[33] After Huffman and Ohanian left Reddit, Erik Martin, who joined the company as a community manager in 2008 and later became general manager in 2011, played a role in Reddit's growth.[34]VentureBeat noted that Martin was "responsible for keeping the site going" under Condé Nast's ownership.[35] Martin facilitated the purchase of Reddit Gifts and led charity initiatives.[35]

Reddit launched two different ways of advertising on the site in 2009. The company launched sponsored content[36] and a self-serve ads platform that year.[37][38] Reddit launched its Reddit Gold benefits program in July 2010, which offered new features to editors and created a new revenue stream for the business that did not rely on banner ads.[39] On September 6, 2011, Reddit became operationally independent of Condé Nast, operating as a separate subsidiary of its parent company, Advance Publications.[40] Reddit and other websites participated in a 12-hour sitewide blackout on January 18, 2012, in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act.[41][42] In May 2012, Reddit joined the Internet Defense League, a group formed to organize future protests.[43]

Yishan Wong joined Reddit as CEO in 2012.[44] Wong resigned from Reddit in 2014, citing disagreements about his proposal to move the company's offices from San Francisco to nearby Daly City, but also the "stressful and draining" nature of the position.[45][46] Ohanian credited Wong with the company's newfound success as its user base grew from 35 million to 174 million.[46] Wong oversaw the company as it raised $50 million in funding and spun off as an independent company.[37] Also during this time, Reddit began accepting the digital currency Bitcoin for its Reddit Gold subscription service through a partnership with bitcoin payment processor Coinbase in February 2013.[47] Ellen Pao replaced Wong as interim CEO in 2014 and resigned in 2015 amid a user revolt over the firing of a popular Reddit employee.[48] During her tenure, Reddit initiated an anti-harassment policy,[49] banned involuntary sexualization, and banned several forums that focused on bigoted content or harassment of individuals.[50]

After five years away from the company, Ohanian and Huffman returned to leadership roles at Reddit: Ohanian became the full-time executive chairman in November 2014 following Wong's resignation, while Pao's departure on July 10, 2015, led to Huffman's return as the company's chief executive.[51][52] After Huffman rejoined Reddit as CEO, he launched Reddit's iOS and Android apps, fixed Reddit's mobile website, and created A/B testing infrastructure.[15] The company launched a major redesign of its website in April 2018.[53] Huffman said new users were turned off from Reddit because it had looked like a "dystopian Craigslist".[53] Reddit also instituted several technological improvements,[54] such as a new tool that allows users to hide posts, comments, and private messages from selected redditors in an attempt to curb online harassment,[55] and new content guidelines. These new content guidelines were aimed at banning content inciting violence and quarantining offensive material.[15][54] Slowe, the company's first employee, rejoined Reddit in 2017 as chief technology officer.[56] Reddit's largest round of funding came in 2017, when the company raised $200 million and was valued at $1.8 billion.[57] The funding supported Reddit's site redesign and video efforts.[57]

On June 5, 2020, Alexis Ohanian resigned as a member of the board in response to the George Floyd protests and requested to be replaced "by a Black candidate".[58]

On December 13, 2020, Reddit announced it had acquired short-form video social platform Dubsmash, hiring its entire team, with the intention integrating its video creation tools into Reddit.[59]

On March 5, 2021, Reddit announced that it had appointed Drew Vollero, who has worked at Snapchat's parent company Snap (SNAP) as its first Chief Financial Officer weeks after the site was thrust into the spotlight due to its role in the GameStop trading frenzy. Vollero's appointment spurred speculation of an initial public offering, a move that senior leaders have considered publicly.[60]

Site overview

Reddit is a website comprising user-generated content—including photos, videos, links, and text-based posts—and discussions of this content in what is essentially a bulletin board system.[61][62] The name "Reddit" is a play-on-words with the phrase "read it", i.e., "I read it on Reddit."[63][64] According to Reddit, in 2019, there were approximately 430 million monthly users,[65] who are known as "redditors".[53] The site's content is divided into categories or communities known on-site as "subreddits", of which there are more than 138,000 active communities.[66]

As a network of communities, Reddit's core content consists of posts from its users.[61][62] Users can comment on others' posts to continue the conversation.[61] A key feature to Reddit is that users can cast positive or negative votes, called upvotes and downvotes respectively, for each post and comment on the site.[61] The number of upvotes or downvotes determines the posts' visibility on the site, so the most popular content is displayed to the most people.[61] Users can also earn "karma" for their posts and comments, a status that reflects their standing within the community and their contributions to Reddit.[61] Posts are automatically archived after six months, meaning they can no longer be commented or voted on.

The most popular posts from the site's numerous subreddits are visible on the front page to those who browse the site without an account.[66][67] By default for those users, the front page will display the subreddit r/popular, featuring top-ranked posts across all of Reddit, excluding not-safe-for-work communities and others that are most commonly filtered out by users (even if they are safe for work).[68][69] The subreddit r/all originally did not filter topics,[70] but as of 2021 it does not include not-safe-for-work content.[71] Registered users who subscribe to subreddits see the top content from the subreddits to which they subscribe on their personal front pages.[66][67]

Front-page rank—for both the general front page and for individual subreddits—is determined by a combination of factors, including the age of the submission, positive ("upvoted") to negative ("downvoted") feedback ratio, and the total vote-count.[72]

Users and moderators

Registering an account with Reddit is free and does not require an email address.[73][74] In addition to commenting and voting, registered users can also create their own subreddit on a topic of their choosing.[75] In Reddit style, usernames begin with "u/". For example, noteworthy redditors include u/Poem_for_your_sprog, who responds to messages across Reddit in verse,[76]u/Shitty_Watercolour who posts paintings in response to posts,[77]u/gallowboob, with the highest karma on reddit,[78] and u/spez, the CEO of Reddit (Steve Huffman).

Subreddits are overseen by moderators, Reddit users who earn the title by creating a subreddit or being promoted by a current moderator.[66] These moderators are volunteers who manage their communities, set and enforce community-specific rules, remove posts and comments that violate these rules, and generally work to keep discussions in their subreddit on topic.[66][79][80] Admins, by contrast, are paid to work for Reddit.[79]

Reddit also releases transparency reports annually which have information like how many posts have been taken down by moderators and for what reason. It also details information about requests law enforcement agencies have made for information about users or to take down content.[81] In 2020, Reddit removed 6% of posts made on their platform (approx. 233 million). More than 99% of removals were marked as spam; the remainder made up of a mix of other offensive content. Around 131 million posts were removed by the automated moderator and the rest were taken down manually.[82][83]

Subreddits

Subreddits are user-created areas of interest where discussions on Reddit are organized. There are about 138,000 active subreddits (among a total of 1.2 million) as of July 2018[update].[84][85] Subreddit names begin with "r/"; for instance, "r/science" is a community devoted to discussing scientific topics, while "r/television" is a community devoted to discussing TV shows and "r/Islam", a community dedicated for Islam oriented topics.

In a 2014 interview with Memeburn, Erik Martin, then general manager of Reddit, remarked that their "approach is to give the community moderators or curators as much control as possible so that they can shape and cultivate the type of communities they want".[86] Subreddits often use themed variants of Reddit's alien mascot, Snoo, in the visual styling of their communities.[87]

Other features

Reddit Premium (formerly Reddit Gold) is a premium membership that allows users to view the site ad-free.[88][89] Users may also be gifted coins if another user particularly valued the comment or post, generally due to humorous or high-quality content. Reddit Premium unlocks several features not accessible to regular users, such as comment highlighting, exclusive subreddits, and a personalized Snoo (known as a "snoovatar").[90][91] Reddit Gold was renamed Reddit Premium in 2018. In addition to gold coins, users can gift silver and platinum coins to other users as rewards for quality content.[92]

On the site, redditors commemorate their "cake day" once a year, on the anniversary of the day their account was created.[93] Cake day adds an icon of a small slice of cake next to the user's name for 24 hours.[94]

In 2017, Reddit developed its own real-time chat software for the site.[95] While some established subreddits have used third-party software to chat about their communities, the company built chat functions that it hopes will become an integral part of Reddit.[95] Individual chat rooms were rolled out in 2017 and community chat rooms for members of a given subreddit were rolled out in 2018.[95][96][97]

In 2019, Reddit tested a new feature which allowed users to tip others. It was only made available for a user named Chris who goes by the alias u/shittymorph, who was known for posting well-written comments, only for them to end with the same copypasta referencing the 1998 Hell in a Cell match between wrestlers The Undertaker and Mankind.[98][99]

Reddit Talk was announced in April 2021 as a competitor to Clubhouse. Reddit Talk lets subreddit moderators start audio meeting rooms that mimick Clubhouse in design.[100]

In August 2021, the company introduced a TikTok-like short-form video feature for iOS that lets users rapidly swipe through a feed of short video content.[101]

Technology and design

Underlying code

Reddit was originally written in Common Lisp but was rewritten in Python in December 2005[102] for wider access to code libraries and greater development flexibility. The Python web framework that Swartz developed to run the site, web.py, is available as an open source project.[103] As of November 10, 2009[update], Reddit used Pylons as its web framework.[104] Reddit was an open source project from June 18, 2008 until 2017.[105][106] During that time, all of the code and libraries written for Reddit were freely available on GitHub, with the exception of the anti-spam/cheating portions.[107] In a September 2017 announcement, the company stated that "we've been doing a bad job of keeping our open-source product repos up to date", partially because "open-source makes it hard for us to develop some features 'in the clear' ... without leaking our plans too far in advance", prompting the decision to archive its public GitHub repos.[106]

Hosting and servers

As of November 10, 2009[update], Reddit decommissioned its own servers and migrated to Amazon Web Services.[108] Reddit uses PostgreSQL as its primary datastore.[citation needed] It uses RabbitMQ for offline processing, HAProxy for load balancing and memcached for caching. In early 2009, Reddit started using jQuery.[109]

Mobile apps

In 2010, Reddit released its first mobile web interface for easier reading and navigating the website on touch screen devices.[110] For several years, redditors relied on third-party apps to access Reddit on mobile devices. In October 2014, Reddit acquired one of them, Alien Blue, which became the official iOS Reddit app.[111] Reddit removed Alien Blue and released its official application, Reddit: The Official App, on Google Play and the iOS App Store in April 2016.[112] The company released an app for Reddit's question-and-answer Ask Me Anything subreddit in 2014.[113] The app allowed users to see active Ask Me Anythings, receive notifications, ask questions and vote.[113]

Product and design changes

Reddit homepage in 2005 – the site's design was based on this until the 2018 redesign, but the classic layout is still available on old.reddit.com

The site has undergone several products and design changes since it originally launched in 2005. When it initially launched, there were no comments or subreddits. Comments were added in 2005[53] and interest-based groups (called 'subreddits') were introduced in 2008.[115] Allowing users to create subreddits has led to much of the activity that redditors would recognize that helped define Reddit. These include subreddits "WTF", "funny", and "AskReddit".[115] Reddit rolled out its multireddit feature, the site's biggest change to its front page in years, in 2013.[116] With the multireddits, users see top stories from a collection of subreddits.[116]

In 2015, Reddit enabled embedding, so users could share Reddit content on other sites.[117] In 2016, Reddit began hosting images using a new image uploading tool, a move that shifted away from the uploading service Imgur that had been the de facto service.[118] Users still can upload images to Reddit using Imgur.[118] Reddit's in-house video uploading service for desktop and mobile launched in 2017.[119] Previously, users had to use third-party video uploading services, which Reddit acknowledged was time-consuming for users.[119]

Reddit released its "spoiler tags" feature in January 2017.[120] The feature warns users of potential spoilers in posts and pixelates preview images.[120] Reddit unveiled changes to its public front page, called r/popular, in 2017;[70] the change creates a front page free of potentially adult-oriented content for unregistered users.[70]

In late 2017, Reddit declared it wanted to be a mobile-first site, launching several changes to its apps for iOS and Android.[93] The new features included user-to-user chat, a theater mode for viewing visual content, and mobile tools for the site's moderators. "Mod mode" lets moderators manage content and their subreddits on mobile devices.[93]

Reddit launched its redesigned website in 2018, with its first major visual update in a decade.[53] Development for the new site took more than a year.[53] It was the result of an initiative by Huffman upon returning to Reddit, who said the site's outdated look deterred new users.[53] The new site features a hamburger menu to help users navigate the site, different views, and new fonts to better inform redditors if they are clicking on a Reddit post or an external link.[53] The goal was not only for Reddit to improve its appearance, but also to make it easier to accommodate a new generation of Reddit users.[53] Additionally, Reddit's growth had strained the site's back end;[121] Huffman and Reddit Vice President of Engineering Nick Caldwell told The Wall Street Journal's COI Journal that Reddit needed to leverage artificial intelligence and other modern digital tools.[121] Registered users can opt-out from the redesign and use "Old Reddit" which continues to use the previous design. Unregistered users can access it via old.reddit.com.[122]

Logo

Original Reddit wordmark (2005-2018), still seen on the "classic" Reddit interface

Reddit's logo consists of a time-traveling alien named Snoo and the company name stylized as "reddit". The alien has an oval head, pom-pom ears, and an antenna.[123] Its colors are black, white, and orange-red.[123] The mascot was created in 2005 while company co-founder Alexis Ohanian was an undergraduate at the University of Virginia.[124] Ohanian doodled the creature while bored in a marketing class.[125] Originally, Ohanian sought to name the mascot S'new, a play on "What's new?", to tie the mascot into Reddit's premise as the "front page of the Internet".[123][125] Eventually, the name Snoo was chosen.[123] In 2011, Ohanian outlined the logo's evolution with a graphic that showcased several early versions, including various spellings of the website name, such as "Reditt".[124]

Snoo is genderless, so the logo is moldable.[123][126] Over the years, the Reddit logo has frequently changed for holidays and other special events.[124] Many subreddits have a customized Snoo logo to represent the subreddit.[125] Redditors can also submit their own logos, which sometimes appear on the site's front page, or create their own customized versions of Snoo for their communities (or "subreddits").[124][53] When Reddit revamped its website in April 2018, the company imposed several restrictions on how Snoo can be designed: Snoo's head "should always appear blank or neutral", Snoo's eyes are orange-red, and Snoo cannot have fingers.[123] Snoo's purpose is to discover and explore humanity.[123]

Corporate affairs

Reddit is a private company based in San Francisco, California.[127][84] It has an office in the Tenderloin neighborhood.[128] Reddit doubled its headcount in 2017;[129] as of 2018[update], it employed approximately 350 people.[84] In 2017, the company was valued at $1.8 billion during a $200 million round of new venture funding.[57][37] The company was previously owned by Condé Nast, but was spun off as an independent company.[37] As of April 2018[update], Advance Publications, Condé Nast's parent company, retained a majority stake in Reddit.[84]

Reddit's key management personnel includes co-founder and CEO Steve Huffman,[15] Chief Technology Officer Chris Slowe, who was the company's original lead engineer,[56] and Chief Operating Officer Jen Wong, a former president of digital and chief operating officer at Time Inc.[89]

Reddit does not disclose its revenue figures.[57][89] The company generates revenue in part through advertising and premium memberships that remove ads from the site.[89][88]

As part of its company culture, Reddit operates on a no-negotiation policy for employee salaries.[130] The company offers new mothers, fathers, and adoptive parents up to 16 weeks of parental leave.[131]

As of August 2021, Reddit is valued at more than $10 billion dollars following a $410 million funding around.[132] The company is looking to hire investment bankers and lawyers to assist in making an initial public offering, which is expected in 2022. However, CEO Steve Huffman says the company has not decided on the timing for when to go public.[133]

Advertising

In February 2013, Betabeat published a post that recognized the influx of multinational corporations like Costco, Taco Bell, Subaru, and McDonald's posting branded content on Reddit that was made to appear as if it was original content from legitimate Reddit users.[134] PAN Communications wrote that marketers want to "infiltrate the reddit community on behalf of their brand," but emphasized that "self-promotion is frowned upon" and Reddit's former director of communications noted that the site is "100 percent organic."[135][136][137][138] She recommended that advertisers design promotions that "spark conversations and feedback."[139] She recommended that businesses use AMAs to get attention for public figures but cautioned "It is important to approach AMAs carefully and be aware that this may not be a fit for every project or client."[140]Nissan ran a successful branded content promotion offering users free gifts to publicize a new car,[141][142] though the company was later ridiculed for suspected astroturfing when the CEO only answered puff piece questions on the site.[143][144] Taylor described these situations as "high risk" noting: "We try hard to educate people that they have to treat questions that may seem irreverent or out of left field the same as they would questions about the specific project they are promoting."[145]

Reddit's users tend to be more privacy-conscious than on other websites, often using tools like AdBlock and proxies,[146] and they dislike "feeling manipulated by brands" but respond well to "content that begs for intelligent viewers and participants."[147] Lauren Orsini writes in ReadWrite that "Reddit's huge community is the perfect hype machine for promoting a new movie, a product release, or a lagging political campaign" but there is a "very specific set of etiquette. Redditors don't want to advertise for you, they want to talk to you."[148] Journalists have used the site as a basis for stories, though they are advised by the site's policies to respect that "reddit's communities belong to their members" and to seek proper attribution for people's contributions.[149]

Reddit announced that they would begin using VigLink to redirect affiliate links in June 2016.[150][151]

Since 2017, Reddit has partnered with companies to host sponsored AMAs and other interactive events,[152][153] increased advertising offerings,[154] and introduced efforts to work with content publishers.[155]

In 2018, Reddit hired Jen Wong as COO, responsible for the company's business strategy and growth, and introduced native mobile ads.[89] Reddit opened a Chicago office to be closer to major companies and advertising agencies located in and around Chicago.[156] In 2019, Reddit hired former Twitter ad director Shariq Rizvi as its vice president of ad products and engineering.[157]

Community and culture

The website is known for its open nature and diverse user community that generate its content.[158] Its demographics allows for wide-ranging subject areas, as well as the ability for smaller subreddits to serve more niche purposes.[79] The possibilities that subreddits provide create new opportunities for raising attention and fostering discussion across various areas. In gaining popularity in terms of unique users per day, Reddit has been a platform to raise publicity for a number of causes.[159] Additionally, the user base of Reddit has given birth to other websites, including image sharing community and image hostImgur, which started in 2009 as a gift to Reddit's community.[160] In its first five months, it jumped from a thousand hits per day to a million total page views.[161]

Statistics from Google Ad Planner suggest that 74% of Reddit users are male.[162] In 2016, the Pew Research Center published research showing that 4% of U.S. adults use Reddit, of which 67% are men. 78% of users get news from Reddit.[163] Users tend to be significantly younger than average with less than 1% of users being 65 or over.[163]

Reddit is known in part for its passionate user base,[84] which has been described as "offbeat, quirky, and anti-establishment".[127] Similar to the "Slashdot effect", the Reddit effect occurs when a smaller website crashes due to a high influx of traffic after being linked to on Reddit; this is also called the Reddit "hug of death".[164][165]

Philanthropy

Users have used Reddit as a platform for their charitable and philanthropic efforts.[166] Redditors raised more than $100,000 for charity in support of comedians Jon Stewart's and Stephen Colbert's Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear; more than $180,000 for Haiti earthquake relief efforts; and delivered food pantries' Amazon wish lists.[167][166][168] In 2010, Christians, Muslims, and atheists held a friendly fundraising competition, where the groups raised more than $50,000.[169] A similar donation drive in 2011 saw the atheism subreddit raise over $200,000 for charity.[170] In February 2014, Reddit announced it would donate 10% of its annual ad revenue to non-profits voted upon by its users.[171] As a result of the campaign, Reddit donating $82,765 each to Electronic Frontier Foundation, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Doctors Without Borders, Erowid Center, Wikimedia Foundation, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, NPR, Free Software Foundation, Freedom From Religion Foundation, and Tor Project.[172]

Activism

See also: Digital citizen, Netizen, and Online social movement

Reddit has been used for a wide variety of political engagement including the presidential campaigns of Barack Obama,[173][174]Donald Trump,[175]Hillary Clinton,[176] and Bernie Sanders.[177] It has also been used for self-organizing sociopolitical activism such as protests, communication with politicians and active communities. Reddit has become a popular place for worldwide political discussions.[178]

March for Science

Main article: March for Science

The March for Science originated from a discussion on Reddit over the deletion of all references to climate change from the White House website, about which a user commented that "There needs to be a Scientists' March on Washington".[179][180][181] On April 22, 2017, more than 1 million scientists and supporters participated in more than 600 events in 66 countries across the globe.[182]

Internet privacy, neutrality and anonymity

Reddit users have been engaged in the defense of Internet privacy, net neutrality and Internet anonymity.

Reddit created an Internet blackout day and was joined by Wikipedia and other sites in 2012 in protest of the Stop Online Piracy and Protect IP acts.[183][184] On January 18, Reddit participated in a 12-hour sitewide blackout to coincide with a congressional committee hearing on the measures.[184][185] During that time, Reddit displayed a message on the legislation's effects on Reddit, in addition to resources on the proposed laws.[185] In May 2012, Reddit joined the Internet Defense League, a group formed to organize future protests.[43]

The site and its users protested the Federal Communications Commission as it prepared to scrap net neutrality rules.[186] In 2017, users upvoted "Battle for the Net" posts enough times that they filled up the entire front page.[186] On another day, the front page was overtaken by posts showcasing campaign donations received by members of Congress from the telecommunications industry.[186] Reddit CEO Steve Huffman has also advocated for net neutrality rules.[187][188] In 2017, Huffman told The New York Times that without net neutrality protections, "you give internet service providers the ability to choose winners and losers".[187] On Reddit, Huffman urged redditors to express support for net neutrality and contact their elected representatives in Washington, D.C.[188] Huffman said that the repeal of net neutrality rules stifles competition. He said he and Reddit would continue to advocate for net neutrality.[189]

"Restoring Truthiness" campaign

As a response to Glenn Beck's August 28, 2010, Restoring Honor rally, in September 2010 Reddit users started a movement to persuade satirist Stephen Colbert to have a counter-rally in Washington, D.C.[190] The movement, which came to be called "Restoring Truthiness", was started by user mrsammercer, in a post where he described waking up from a dream in which Stephen Colbert was holding a satirical rally in D.C.[191] Over $100,000 was raised for charity to gain the attention of Colbert.[167] The campaign was mentioned on-air several times, and when the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear was held in Washington, D.C. on October 30, 2010, thousands of redditors made the journey.[192]

During a post-rally press conference, Reddit co-founder Ohanian asked, "What role did the Internet campaign play in convincing you to hold this rally?" Jon Stewart responded by saying that, though it was a very nice gesture, he and Colbert had already thought of the idea and the deposit for using the National Mall was already paid during the summer, so it acted mostly as a "validation of what we were thinking about attempting".[193] In a message to the Reddit community, Colbert later added, "I have no doubt that your efforts to organize and the joy you clearly brought to your part of the story contributed greatly to the turnout and success."[194]

Countries blocking Reddit

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This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2020)

Indonesia

In May 2014, Reddit was blocked in Indonesia on the grounds that it hosts content that includes nudity.[195][196]

Russia

In August 2015, Russia banned Reddit after Russia's Federal Drug Control Service decided that Reddit promoted conversations about psychedelic drugs. The site was unblocked later.[197]

China

See also: Internet censorship in China

In June 2015, Reddit was blocked in China for a few weeks. The site was unblocked later.[198] It was then re-blocked starting August 2018 and has not been unblocked ever since.[199]

India

ISPs in India were found to be blocking traffic over Reddit for intermittent periods in some regions in 2019.[200]

April Fools' Day

Main articles: The Button (Reddit) and Place (Reddit)

On April Fools' Day 2010, Reddit’s first massive April Fool’s social experiment was to make everyone on site an admin. For 24 hours, users could ban one another, modify upvotes, delete comments, and votes. Any modifications to Reddit only occurred through the user’s perspective. While many caught on, others began threatening fellow users with their admin privileges and went on mini power trips demonstrating that not everyone can be trusted with great power.

On April Fools' Day 2011, Reddit replaced its Reddit Gold subscription with Reddit Mold, a joke version of the premium service that could be given to users to make the website experience worse. For example, users who were given Mold would only be able to see fewer posts per page as well as not being able to post anything containing the letter E. These effects were amplified upon receiving more Mold, such as losing the ability to post another letter for each Mold received.[201]

On April Fools' Day 2013, Reddit claimed that it had acquired the video game Team Fortress 2, and initiated a site-wide event where users were randomly assigned into two teams, Orangered and Periwinkle, based on both the colors of the Team Fortress 2 teams as well as the colors of the upvote and downvote buttons. As in Team Fortress 2, users were randomly given items and cosmetics to use, most importantly weapons to use against users on the opposing team.[202]Valve also participated in the event, updating Team Fortress 2 with Reddit related cosmetics.[203] When the event ended, team Orangered was declared the victor.

For April Fools' Day 2014, Reddit did "headdit", a joke way to navigate and use the website using the webcam.

For April Fools' Day 2015, a social experiment subreddit called r/thebutton appeared. It displayed a button and a 60-second countdown timer. User accounts created before that day were eligible to participate. A user could only click the button once, or opt not to click it. If a user clicked the button the timer was globally reset to 60 seconds,[204] and the user's "flair" (an icon next to the user's name) changed color. Colors were assigned based on a gradient from purple to red with purple signifying up to 60 seconds and red as low as 0 seconds. The countdown reached zero several times due to technical problems but eventually expired without further problems on June 5, 2015, after which the subreddit was archived.[205]

For[April Fools' Day 2016, another experiment was launched involving the "Robin" chat widget. After clicking a titular button, an IRC-like chat window was opened with one other user, and allowed a certain time to pick among three options: "Grow", "Stay" and "Leave".[206] "Grow" would join the chat with another group, "Stay" would close the group chat and create a subreddit with that group as moderators and "Leave" would close the group chat.

For April Fools' Day 2017, featured a social experiment based on r/place. The subreddit contained a collaborative pixel art canvas, where a user could place a pixel every five minutes (the timer was temporarily ten and twenty minutes for a few hours on April 1).[207] Many people worked together to create large graphics, such as flags or symbols. Often subreddits would come together as a group to add a graphic from that community to place. Place was closed on April 3, 2017, at 1:00 PM GMT having been active for a full three days.[208]

For April Fools' Day 2018, an experiment launched on the subreddit r/circleoftrust.[209] Upon clicking a button, each user was given one "circle" that they could entrust to others with the circle's password key to unlock and join the circle. While each user received one personal circle, they could join or betray any other user circles. Clicking the "join" button on another's circle would cause the owner's circle to grow bigger, while the "betray" button would cause the owner's circle to no longer function (having "betrayed" the owner's trust). On the r/circleoftrust subreddit, all users have a "flair" next to their username that displays the number of users who've joined their personal circle, followed by the number of other circles the user has joined. Those who had betrayed another user's circle have a null sign ("∅") next to their numbered flair. The experiment ended on April 6, 2018.

For April Fools' Day 2019, a social experiment subreddit called r/sequence was released. The experiment consisted of a community-driven sequencer that users interacted with by submitting GIFs or text slides to be compiled into a movie.[210] The order of the GIFs and text slides were chosen by users through upvoting one GIF or text slide per scene. The most upvoted GIF or text slide was locked into the next available scene for every three minutes. At the end, once the entire sequence was filled, it was posted as a full story in an external page. The experiment ended at April 3, 2019, 11:08 PM GMT.[211]

For April Fools' Day 2020, r/imposter was released. Users were to identify a machine-generated response from a group of responses to the question "What makes you human?" (and, later, "What makes you an imposter?") and had an option to respond to the question after doing so. The experiment ended on April 3, 2020.

For April Fools' Day 2021, Reddit released r/second, in which users have to guess the second most popular option out of a group of three options.[212][213] The event ended after 2000 one-minute rounds, with the final round lasting one hour.

AMAs ("Ask Me Anything")

Main article: r/IAmA

AMAs, or "Ask Me Anything" interviews, are among Reddit's most popular features. As of August 1, 2018[update], r/IAmA, which is the most popular community for AMAs, was the eighth most popular subreddit on the site with 17.7 million subscribers.[214] During an AMA on r/IAmA and other subreddits, users can ask questions to interviewees. Notable participants include former-United States President Barack Obama (while campaigning for the 2012 election),[215]Bill Gates (multiple times),[216] and Donald Trump (also while campaigning).[217] AMAs have featured CEO Steve Huffman,[218] as well as figures from entertainment industries around the world (including Priyanka Chopra and George Clooney),[219][220] literature (Margaret Atwood),[221] space (Buzz Aldrin),[222] privacy (Edward Snowden),[223] and others, such as experts who answered questions about the transgender community.[224]The Atlantic wrote that an AMA "imports the aspirational norms of honesty and authenticity from pseudonymous Internet forums into a public venue".[225]

RedditGifts

Main article: RedditGifts

RedditGifts is a program that offers gift exchanges throughout the year.[226] The fan-made RedditGifts site was created in 2009 for a Secret Santa exchange among Reddit users, which has since become the world's largest[227] and set a Guinness World record.[228] In 2009, 4,500 redditors participated.[227] For the 2010 holiday season, 92 countries were involved in the secret Santa program. There were 17,543 participants, and $662,907.60 was collectively spent on gift purchases and shipping costs.[229][230][231] In 2014, about 200,000 users from 188 countries participated.[232] Several celebrities have participated in the program, including Bill Gates,[233]Alyssa Milano,[234] and Snoop Dogg.[235] Eventually, the secret Santa program expanded to various other occasions through RedditGifts, which Reddit acquired in 2011.[227]

Global Reddit Meetup Day

The online Reddit community conducts real-world meetups across the globe each summer.[236] These in-person meetups are called Global Reddit Meetup Day.[236][237]

Mr. Splashy Pants

Main article: Mr Splashy Pants

Reddit communities occasionally coordinate Reddit-external projects such as skewing polls on other websites, like the 2007 incident when Greenpeace allowed web users to decide the name of a humpback whale it was tracking. Reddit users voted en masse to name the whale "Mr. Splashy Pants", and Reddit administrators encouraged the prank by changing the site logo to a whale during the voting. In December of that year, Mister Splashy Pants was announced as the winner of the competition.[238][239]

Controversies

See also: Controversial Reddit communities

Overview

The website generally allows subreddit moderators to make editorial decisions about what content to allow.[240] Many of the default subreddits are highly moderated, with the "science" subreddit banning climate change denialism,[241] and the "news" subreddit banning opinion pieces and columns.[242] Reddit has changed its site-wide editorial policies several times, sometimes in reaction to controversies.[243][244][245][246] Reddit has historically been a platform for objectionable but legal content, and in 2011, news media covered the way that jailbait was being shared on the site before the site changed their policies to explicitly ban "suggestive or sexual content featuring minors".[247] Following some controversial incidents of Internet vigilantism, Reddit introduced a strict rule against the publication of non-public personally-identifying information via the site (colloquially known as doxxing). Those who break the rule are subject to a site-wide ban, which can result in the deletion of their user-generated content.

2010

On December 16, a user named Matt posted a link describing how he had donated a kidney and included a JustGive link to encourage users to give donations to the American Cancer Society.[248] After an initially positive reaction, Reddit users began to become suspicious of Matt's intentions, and suggested that he was keeping the donations for himself. Users telephoned his home and he received death threats. Matt eventually proved that he was genuine by uploading his doctor's records.[249]

2011

On October 18, an IT manager submitted a post to the subreddit r/gameswap offering Redditors to trade one of 312 codes he had been given for the game Deus Ex: Human Revolution.[250] A group of users obtained his personal details, and began to blackmail him for the codes.[251] Within days, he received 138 threatening phone calls both at home and at his job, and had been fired by the end of the day.[252]

2013

Following the Boston Marathon bombing in April, Reddit faced criticism after users wrongly identified a number of people as suspects.[253] Notable among misidentified bombing suspects was Sunil Tripathi, a student reported missing before the bombings took place. A body reported to be Sunil's was found in Providence River in Rhode Island on April 25, according to Rhode Island Health Department. The cause of death was not immediately known, but authorities said they did not suspect foul play.[254] The family later confirmed Tripathi's death was a result of suicide.[255] Reddit general manager Martin later issued an apology for this behavior, criticizing the "online witch hunts and dangerous speculation" that took place on the website.[256] The incident was later referenced in the season 5 episode of the CBS TV series The Good Wife titled "Whack-a-Mole",[257] as well as The Newsroom.[258][259]

In late October, the moderators of subreddit "r/politics" banned a large group of websites. Some were left-wing opinion websites, such as Mother Jones, HuffPost, Salon, AlterNet, Rawstory, The Daily Kos, Truthout, Media Matters, and ThinkProgress as well as some progressive blog sites, such as Democratic Underground and Crooks and Liars. They also banned a number of right-wing sites—Drudge Report, Breitbart, The Daily Caller, Dailypaul, Power Line, and Reason. Salon reported that "the section's moderators explained in a post on Tuesday, the goal is 'to reduce the number of blogspam submissions and sensationalist titles'". The purge, the moderators explained, is also aimed at sites providing much "bad journalism".[260] The December list of banned websites has been modified since late October, and sites with original content, such as Mother Jones and The Huffington Post, are allowed.[261] Moderators also banned RT, which moderators stated was due to vote manipulation and spam, though one moderator stated that he wanted RT banned because it is funded by the Russian Government.[262]

2014

In August, private sexual photos from the celebrity photo hack were widely disseminated across the site.[263][264] A dedicated subreddit, "TheFappening", was created for this purpose,[265] and contained links to most if not all of the criminally obtained explicit images.[266][267][268][269] Some images of McKayla Maroney and Liz Lee were identified by redditors and outside commentators as child pornography because the photos were taken when the women were underage.[270] The subreddit was banned on September 6.[271] The scandal led to wider criticisms concerning the website's administration from The Verge and The Daily Dot.[272][273]

On December 18, Reddit took the unusual step of banning a subreddit, "SonyGOP", that was being used to distribute hacked Sony files.[274]

2015

After Ellen Pao became CEO, she was initially a target of criticism by users who objected to the deletion of content critical of herself and her husband.[275] Later on June 10, Reddit shut down the 150,000-subscriber "fatpeoplehate" subreddit and four others citing issues related to harassment.[276] This move was seen as very controversial; some commenters said that the bans went too far, while others said that the bans did not go far enough.[277] One of the latter complaints concerned a subreddit that was "expressing support" for the perpetrator of the Charleston church shooting.[278] Responding to the accusations of "skewed enforcement", Reddit reaffirmed their commitment to free expression and stated, "There are some subreddits with very little viewership that get highlighted repeatedly for their content, but those are a tiny fraction of the content on the site."

On July 2, Reddit began experiencing a series of blackouts as moderators set popular subreddit communities to private, in an event dubbed "AMAgeddon", a portmanteau of AMA ("ask me anything") and Armageddon. This was done in protest of the recent firing of Victoria Taylor, an administrator who helped organize citizen-led interviews with famous people on the popular AMA subreddit. Organizers of the blackout also expressed resentment about the recent severance of the communication between Reddit and the moderators of subreddits.[279] The blackout intensified on July 3 when former community manager David Croach gave an AMA about being fired. Before deleting his posts, he stated that Ellen Pao dismissed him with one year of health coverage when he had cancer and did not recover quickly enough.[280][281] Following this, a Change.orgpetition to remove Pao as CEO of Reddit Inc. reached over 200,000 signatures.[282][283][284] Pao posted a response on July 3 as well as an extended version of it on July 6 in which she apologized for bad communication and not delivering on promises. She also apologized on behalf of the other administrators and noted that problems already existed over the past several years.[285][286][287][288] On July 10, Pao resigned as CEO and was replaced by former CEO and co-founder Steve Huffman.[289]

In August, Steve Huffman introduced a policy which led to the banning of several offensive and sexual communities. Included in the ban was lolicon, to which Huffman referred as "animated CP [child porn]".[290] Some subreddits had also been quarantined due to having "highly-offensive or upsetting content" such as r/European, r/swedenyes, r/drawpeople, r/kiketown, r/blackfathers, r/greatapes, and r/whitesarecriminals.[291]

2016

In May, Steve Huffman said in an interview at the TNW Conference that, unlike Facebook, which "only knows what [its users are] willing to declare publicly", Reddit knows its users' "dark secrets"[292][293][294] at the same time that the website's "values" page was updated in regards to its "privacy" section. The video reached the top of the website's main feed.[294][295] Shortly thereafter, announcements concerning new advertisement content drew criticism on the website.[296][297]

In September, a user named "mormondocuments" released thousands of administrative documents belonging to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, an action driven by the ex-Mormon and atheist communities on Reddit. Previously, on April 22, the same user had announced his plans to do so. Church officials commented that the documents did not contain anything confidential.[298][299]

On November 23, Huffman admitted to having replaced his user name with the names of r/The_Donald moderators in many insulting comments.[300][301] He did so by changing insulting comments made towards him and made it appear as if the insult were directed at the moderators of r/The_Donald.[302]

On November 24, The Washington Post reported Reddit had banned the "Pizzagate" conspiracy board from their site, stating it violated their policy of posting personal information of others, triggering a wave of criticism from users on r/The_Donald, who felt the ban amounted to censorship.[303] The Reddit forum r/pizzagate was devoted to a widely-debunked conspiracy theory alleging that the Comet Ping Pong pizzeria in Washington, D.C. "is at the center of a child-abuse ring tied to John Podesta, Mrs. Clinton's former campaign manager".[304] After the forum was banned from Reddit, the words "we don't want witchhunts on our site" now appears on the former page of the Pizzagate subreddit.[304][305]

On November 30, Huffman announced changes to the algorithm of Reddit's r/all page to block "stickied" posts from a number of subreddits, such as r/The_Donald. In the announcement, he also apologized for personally editing posts by users from r/The_Donald, and declared intentions to take actions against "hundreds of the most toxic users" of Reddit and "communities whose users continually cross the line".[5][306][307]

2017

In February, Reddit banned the alt-right subreddit r/altright for violating its terms of service, more specifically for attempting to share private information about the man who attacked alt-right figure Richard B. Spencer.[308][309] The forum's users and moderators accused Reddit administrators of having political motivations for the ban.[310][311]

Trump supporters on r/The_Donald generally believed in the white genocide conspiracy theory. Participants there described "meme magic" as the idea that the internet memes they created could be willed into existence. For months leading up to the Charlottesville "Unite the Right" riot, The_Donald participants shared memes with the slogan "All Lives Splatter" (a reference to All Lives Matter) captioning cartoons of protesters being run over. The real-life Charlottesville car attack, which killed one and injured dozens, brought those memes to life.[312]

2018

In March, it was revealed that Huffman had hidden Russian troll activity from users.[313]

On July 12, the creator and head moderator of the GamerGate subreddit, r/KotakuInAction, removed all of the moderators and set the forum to private, alleging it to have become "infested with racism and sexism". A Reddit employee restored the forum and its moderators an hour later.[314][315]

2019

In January, the Filipino-themed subreddit r/jakolandia was accused of "distributing” posts of photos of women, including celebrities, apparently without their consent, similar to "a number" of secret Facebook groups that had been engaging in illegal activity of sharing "obscene" photos of women and possibly child pornography.[316]

In February, Chinese company Tencent invested $150 million into Reddit.[317][318] This resulted in a large backlash from Reddit users, who were worried about potential censorship.[319][320][321] Many posts featuring subjects censored in China, such as Tiananmen Square, Tank Man, and Winnie the Pooh, received popularity on Reddit.[318][321][322]

2020

During the George Floyd protests in early June, over 800 moderators signed an open letter demanding a policy banning hate speech, a shutdown of racist and sexist subreddits, and more employee support for moderation. Bloomberg News pointed out the company's slow reaction to r/watchpeopledie, a subreddit dedicated to videos of people dying in accidents and other situations, and the harassment that accompanied new unmoderated features like icons for purchase and public chats.[323]

On June 29, Reddit updated its content policy and introduced rules aimed at curbing the presence of communities they believed to be "promoting hate",[324] and banned approximately 2,000 subreddits that were found to be in violation of the new guidelines on the same day.[325] Larger subreddits affected by the bans included r/The_Donald,[326]r/GenderCritical[327] (the platform's largest and most active anti-transgender radical feminist subreddit),[328] and r/ChapoTrapHouse (a far-left subreddit originally created by fans of the podcast Chapo Trap House).[327] Some media outlets and political commentators also condemned the banning of the r/The_Donald and r/ChapoTrapHouse subreddits as a violation of the right to free political expression.[329]

2021

After the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol, Reddit announced that it had banned the subreddit r/DonaldTrump in response to repeated policy violations and alluding to the potential influence the community had on those who participated in or supported the storming.[330] The move followed similar actions from social media platforms, Twitter, YouTube, TikTok and more.[331] The ban brought controversy from those who believed it furthered an agenda and censorship of conservative ideologies.[332] The subreddit had over 52,000 members just before it was banned.[333]

The GameStop short squeeze was primarily organized on the subreddit r/wallstreetbets in January.[334]

In March, Reddit users discovered that Aimee Challenor, an English politician who had been suspended from two UK political parties, was hired as an administrator for the site. Her first suspension from the Green Party came for retaining her father as her campaign manager after his arrest on child sexual abuse charges. She was later suspended from the Liberal Democrats after tweets describing pedophilic fantasies were discovered on her partner's Twitter account. Reddit banned a moderator for posting a news article which mentioned Challenor, and some Reddit users alleged that Reddit were removing all mention of Challenor. A large number of subreddits, including r/Music which had 27 million subscribers, and 46 other subreddits with over 1 million subscribers, went private in protest.[335][336][337][338] On 24 March, Reddit's CEOSteve Huffman said that Challenor had been inadequately vetted before being hired and that Reddit would review its relevant internal processes. Huffman attributed user suspensions to over-indexing on anti-harassment measures.[337] Challenor was also removed from her role as a Reddit admin.[339]

In late August, more than 70 subreddits went private to protest against COVID-19 misinformation on Reddit, as well as Reddit's refusal to delete subreddits undermining the severity of the pandemic.[340][341]

Science

Aggregate Reddit user data has been used for scientific research.[342] For example, a 2014 study showed how subreddits can support role-based group recommendations or provide evaluation towards group stability and growth.[343] Another study evoked a connection between cognitive and attention dynamics and the usage of online social peer production platforms, including the effects of deterioration of user performance.[344] There is also work that has studied the influence of Reddit posts on the popularity of Wikipedia content.[345]

Data from Reddit can also be used to assess academic publications.[346]

See also

Similar websites

General

Explanatory notes

  1. ^The site is primarily written in English with no way to display it in another language. However, individual subreddits may opt to cater to a specific language, only allowing posts, comments, etc. in that language.
  2. ^Reddit can be viewed without an account but registration is required to submit, comment or vote.
  3. ^Previously written in Lisp, then rewritten in Python in 2005

References

  1. ^"Reddit on June23-05". December 5, 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
  2. ^"About ADVANCE". www.advance.com. Archived from the original on April 15, 2019. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  3. ^"Reddit Secures Funding to Continue Growth Plans". Upvoted. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  4. ^Porter, Jon. "Reddit to double employees after raising $250 million". The Verge. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
  5. ^ abOhlheiser, Abby (November 30, 2016). "Reddit will limit the reach of a pro-Trump board and crack down on its 'most toxic users'". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 2269358. Archived from the original on January 14, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  6. ^ ab"Reddit traffic statistics". Statista. April 3, 2009. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  7. ^ ab"Reddit Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic". Alexa Internet. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  8. ^Carr, David (September 2, 2012). "Reddit Thrives Under Hands-Off Policy of Advance Publications". The New York Times. United States. ISSN 1553-8095. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  9. ^Alden, William (October 1, 2014). "With Reddit Deal, Snoop Dogg Moonlights as a Tech Investor". The New York Times. ISSN 1553-8095. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
  10. ^Cheredar, Tom (September 8, 2014). "Reddit reportedly raising $50M at a $500M valuation". Retrieved May 15, 2015.
  11. ^Kafka, Peter; Swisher, Kara (September 7, 2014). "Reddit Raising a Big Round, and Some Y Combinator Players Are in the Mix". Retrieved May 15, 2015.
  12. ^Wagner, Kurt (July 31, 2017). "Reddit raised $200 million in funding and is now valued at $1.8 billion". Recode. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  13. ^Saxena, Aparajita (February 11, 2019). "Reddit valued at $3 billion after raising $300 million in latest funding round". Reuters. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  14. ^"Reddit Secures Funding to Continue Growth Plans". Upvoted. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  15. ^ abcdefghHempel, Jessi (October 6, 2015). "Inside Reddit's plan to recover from its epic meltdown". Wired. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  16. ^ abcFink, Steve (August 2015). "Mr. Meme". Baltimore. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  17. ^Williams, Michelle (August 2015). "'This internet thing is not a fad': Reddit co-founder Alexis Ohanian to discuss online entrepreneurship at UMass Amherst". Mass Live. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  18. ^Guy Raz (August 31, 2017). "Make Me Smart 6: Reddit CEO Steve Huffman is not horsing around" (Podcast). NPR. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  19. ^ ab"Live Episode! Reddit: Alexis Ohanian & Steve Huffman". How I Built This With Guy Raz. August 31, 2017. NPR.
  20. ^Wallace, Benjamin (October 6, 2015). "Reddit Redux". New York Magazine. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  21. ^Christine Lagorio-Chafkin (2018). We Are the Nerds: The Birth and Tumultuous Life of Reddit, the Internet's Culture Laboratory. Hachette Books. p. 70. ISBN .
  22. ^Richards, Zak. "Unleashing High-Profile, High-Profit Websites". Archived from the original on September 16, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  23. ^Macale, Sherilynn "Cheri" (October 13, 2011). "A rundown of Reddit's history and community [Infographic]". The Next Web Social Media. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
  24. ^Singel, Ryan (July 19, 2011). "Feds Charge Activist as Hacker for Downloading Millions of Academic Articles". Wired. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  25. ^Swartz, Aaron (February 27, 2006). "Introducing Infogami". Infogami. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved January 6, 2007. (archive.org link)
  26. ^@alexisohanian (July 19, 2011). "Alexis Ohanian Sr. 🚀 on Twitter: "ATTN @nytimes Steve Huffman & I founded @reddit. We acquired Aaron Swartz's company infogami 6mos after we launched." / Twitter" (Tweet). Retrieved July 17, 2020 – via Twitter.
  27. ^"Condé Nast/Wired Acquires Reddit". October 31, 2006.
  28. ^Arrington, Michael (October 31, 2006). "Breaking news: Condé Nast/Wired Acquires Reddit". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 6, 2007.
  29. ^Aaron Swartz (November 15, 2006). "Office Space". Aaron Swartz's Raw Thought. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  30. ^"A Chat with Aaron Swartz". Blogoscoped.com. May 7, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  31. ^Peterson, Andrea (July 15, 2015). "The two co-founder quotes that explain Reddit's struggle to grow up". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  32. ^Lagorio-Chafkin, Christine (June 27, 2011). "30 Under 30: Adam Goldstein and Steve Huffman, Founders of Hipmunk". Inc. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  33. ^Kincaid, Jason (November 1, 2010). "Reddit Chief Takes Flight To Hipmunk, Explains Why He's Leaving Now". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  34. ^Parks, Miles (January 1, 2015). "Erik Martin helped make Reddit huge, then he left. What's next for an Internet master?". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  35. ^ abCheredar, Tom (March 30, 2012). "Reddit General Manager Erik Martin leads Time's "100 Most Influential" poll". VentureBeat. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  36. ^Kafka, Peter (March 27, 2009). "Reddit's Ad Experiment Is Good News for Condé Nast. Maybe for Digg, Too". All Things Digital. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  37. ^ abcdLoizos, Connie (July 31, 2017). "Reddit just raised a new round that values the company at $1.8 billion". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  38. ^Siegler, MG (November 12, 2009). "Reddit opens its homepage to anyone willing to pay (invites)". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reddit

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Reddit is an online platform which enables users to submit links, create content, and have discussions about the topics of their interest. 12/18/2018 0 Comments Lecturer Guide: How to allow late submissions for Turnitin Assignments. Jun 01, 2021 · I boats fair game review hack your wii to run emulators speakercraft aim 7 3 k7 antivirus 6 user price in india 11 07 pm lyrics miguel angel: else cara torrecillas dolor en las coyunturas y cansancio arte television network tv shows buy liquid nicotine. Independent Oil Tools Pty Ltd (IOT) is a leading service provider to the Oil & Gas industry. ULPT: If your college website using "Turnitin" to check for plagiarism , Simply add "quotes" at the beginning and end of your entire paper in white color font and it will interpret this as one long citation, giving you a 0% match. Essay on merging and acquisition essay on environment in kannada language, essay writing englishBook Review #1- “The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. Pricked by raw prawn. Isaca CRISC Dumps - Qxn press freedom in the philippines essayTurnitin Late Submission Hack Reddit Jennifer Douglas - Dean of Graduate Studies and Research Better Speech | Better Business Bureau® Profile Is the Peer Essay Review only for college application For the Record: Ramon Galvan of Blackmilk is Not a Man To. To provide sufficient combat power to carry out its assignment, Hack's task the earliest that Hack could begin his attack would be the late evening of 9. Brick streets Historic District. Aug 21, 2020 · how to hack my gf phone Your girlfriend has been elusive of late and cancelling appointments you spent hours making. Create beautiful designs with your team. More than 156458 Plagiarism Check done by Creative Savants as of 13th September 2021. You will need to check if the submission is more than 7 days late. However, it can take longer depending on the length and type of the file uploaded. Find the right freelancer to begin working on your project within minutes. Proven Ways to Cheat Turnitin. This service works on a commercial basis and requires prior registration. The three main Turnitin late submission hacks are submission of an invalid file, changing the assignment deadline, and adjusting its settings on Turnitin account. Aug 01, 2018 · Myth 9: You shouldn’t bother paying your student loans because they’ll always be there. Turnitin late submission hack. Turnitin takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to scan and provide a plagiarism report. Delete a chunk of them. Log into D2L Course Site. 13 hours ago · Goformative hack Goformative hack You can auto-grade: Categorize, Essay, Matching, Multiple Choice, Multiple Selection, Numeric, Resequence, Short Answer, and True or False questions by setting an answer key! Mar 30, 2020 · Turnitin late Submission hack. Sed at ante at risus blandit lobortis. You can submit your paper using 2 methods namely: 1. Aug 12, 2020 · 3,020 Likes, 39 Comments - William & Mary (@william_and_mary) on Instagram: “Move-In looks a little different this year, and we know there are mixed emotions right now. Goformative hack Goformative hack You can auto-grade: Categorize, Essay, Matching, Multiple Choice, Multiple Selection, Numeric, Resequence, Short Answer, and True or False questions by setting an answer key! Mar 30, 2020 · Turnitin late Submission hack. The three main Turnitin late submission hacks are submission of an invalid file, changing the assignment deadline, and adjusting its settings on Turnitin account. The second part should contain your personal thoughts on the subject. As such, to help students, here are certain hacks one can use for the late submission of assignments on Turnitin. a) Weight b) Mass c) Volume d) Density 3. Turnitin late Submission hacks & How to Turn Late Assignments. Make sure to cup the balls when you stroke. This way, students get to manage when they get it done. To assist with this. The Turnitin assignment inbox highlights late submissions in red. Turnitin late submission hack. Writing process of essay critical thinking strategies in literatureWorking at Career College of Northern Nevada | Glassdoor. com solves all kinds of Math homework - Reddit Pin on Resources - Pinterest Super Teacher Worksheets Reviews - Homeschool Review QuickBooks Online Conversion. As such, to help students, here are certain hacks one can use for the late submission of assignments on Turnitin. It is the nature of students to procrastinate assignments. abril 21, 2017. 16 hours ago · Login I am going back to school so I can have my degree once and for all. Essay writing upsc tipsAlpine Recovery Lodge Reviews, Ratings | Addiction - Birdeye. Turnitin is one of the technological advancements. Use at your own discretion. Turnitin helps students submit their assignments and beat the given deadline, Turnitin also checks on plagiarism. Hi @jcollens ,. Create beautiful designs with your team. courseherounlocker. Brick streets Historic District. com Primary Homework Help Diwali, Do Homework in New fastai paperspace promo code - Lavandaria Roupa na Mão Ductless. Once you have successfully beaten the deadline using either of the above tricks, you can now turn in a late assignment via Turnitin with peace. This way it picks plagiarized material in more. I didn't submit essays through Turnitin-- my program(me) did use that software but the uploading was through their own system. It has a reputation for independent, award-winning journalism and is. Warmish is now available for sale. Backdate your computer to date of when you’re supposed to start … 2. Many required significant changes to the IT running Healthcare. Other tricks that work to bypass turnitin due date include persuading the teacher and giving excuses Hack #1: Late assignments on online courses.

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She worked as a gas boiler operator and was on duty today. The bus stopped at the final stop, I got off. The bus and went to the boiler room. It was 400 meters away from her. As I walked, various kinds of sexual pictures appeared in my head, which I drew, imagining how Galina and I were engaged in love pleasures.

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Now is day. I am wearing only a light translucent robe, longeven too much drags on the floor, and the stockings I adore, you lie on the bed, your big beautiful body. Lies in the middle of this endless bed, a thin violet-colored silk sheet covers your naked body, you lie on your back, your hands are scattered to the sides, in a normal woman, you would cause emotion at such a moment, but I have a Desire.

I want you.



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