# Stoichiometry homework

## Stoichiometry Assignment Help

Stoichiometry: the study in which amount of reactant needed in each reaction to form product or the amount of product formed in each reaction. general quantities which are measured in this branch are Pressure(P), Volume(V), Temperature at which the reaction would occur and the number of moles(n) involved in the reaction. This branch is necessary as it tells that how much moles would react with other reactant to form desired product. As stated previously that a small change is reactants’ concentration could result a major change in type of product. Hence the stoichiometry deals with the number of reactants.

GENERAL EQUATION INVOLVED: PV = nRT where R→ Universal Gas Constant

GENERAL TERMS INVOLVED: Stoichiometric coefficient

STOICHIOMETRIC COEFFICIENT: it is the number written before a reactant species in a chemical reaction. This number represents the number of entities(moles) reacting with other reactants in a reaction. Illustration with an example: CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O. the Number ‘2’ ahead of O2 on the reactant side shows that 2 moles of O2 are reacting with 1 mole of CH4 to form 1 mole of CO2 and 2 moles of H2O. once we have the concentration of the reactants we can easily find out the amount of product formed.

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Stoichiometry The Basics  What is stoichiometry?  A method of determining the quantities of products produced in a chemical reaction or what amount of a reactant needed to carry out a chemical reaction.  What do the stoichiometric coefficients tell us about the chemical reaction and the ratio between the chemical compounds involved? MOLE RATIO ! ! ! Ex. 1 Milk of magnesia, Mg(OH)2, reacts with stomach acid in a neutralization reaction. What is the mass (in grams) of magnesium chloride produced when 3.00g of milk of magnesia is taken? More Practice with the Basics 1) _____N2H4 + ____O2 fuel)  ____N2 + _____H2O (N2H4 is rocket We have 5.20 mol of N2H4. How many moles of O2 do we use up in the reaction? 2) ____C6H12O6 + ____O2  ____CO2 + _____H2O If you eat 10.0 grams of sugar, how many grams of oxygen do you need to breathe to carry out this reaction and get energy?  True Test of Stoichiometry Skills Gaseous ammonia is placed into an aqueous solution that is 65% H2SO4 by mass with a density of 1.55 g/mol. Ammonium sulfate is produced from this reaction and used as fertilizer. How many milliliters of sulfuric acid are needed along with 1.00 kg NH3 to produce ammonium phosphate? Limiting Reactant  Chemical compound that “limits” or determines how much product can be produced  All of the compound is consumed in the reaction  Excess reactant—chemical compound not consumed in the reaction, plenty of the compound is available for the chemical reaction Steps to find the limiting reactant  Two stoichiometry problems in ONE !  1) Write a balanced equation 2) Find the amount of product (in grams) produced from each reactant amount. 3) The reactant producing the SMALLEST product is the limiting reactant. Ex. 2 Aspirin synthesis: 2C7H6O3 + C4H6O3 2C9H8O4 + H2O When 20.0g of C7H6O3 and 20.0g of C4H6O3 react, which is the limiting reactant? What is the mass (in grams) of aspirin produced? Limiting Reactant—More Practice 1) For the thermite reaction between chromium(III) oxide and aluminum metal, producing chromium metal and aluminum oxide, what is the maximum weight of metallic chromium that can be produced by reacting 38.0 grams of Cr2O3 with 9.00 grams of metallic aluminum? 2) What mass of of magnesium oxide is formed when 10.0g of magnesium metal reacts with 10.0g of oxygen? Percent Yield  “yield—” the amount of product actually made through a chemical reaction. Why is this value important?  Theoretical yield— calculated amount of product  Actual/Experimental yield– the “true/actual” amount of product made in the chemical reaction, usually less than theoretical  How is this value different than percent error? Percent Yield  = Actual yield x 100% Theoretical yield Ex. 98.80% of Mg3N2 was produced in a chemical reaction. What happened to the rest? (purity, other reactions, remaining product, etc.) Consider the reaction between solutions of barium hydroxide and phosphoric acid, which forms water and quantitatively precipitates barium phosphate. A student mixes 500.0 mL of 0.0400 M H3PO4 with 240.0 mL of 0.100 M Ba(OH)2 and collects 4.66 grams of a white precipitate. 1) Which reactant was the limiting reagent? 2) What was the theoretical amount of precipitate that should have been formed? 3) What is the percent yield for this experiment? Homework  Read over lab procedure  Read pp. 97-106  Stoichiometry Worksheet
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## Homework stoichiometry

Solving Stoichiometry Problems

Objectives:

1.    Name four major categories of stoichiometry problems.

2.    Explain how to solve each type of stoichiometry problems.

Notes:

It is important to remember that solving stoichiometry problems is very similar to following a recipe.  Once you know the recipe you can modify it using the same ratios to make the product for more or less people.

There are 4 major categories of stiochiometry problems.  It is important to remember, though, that in every situation you need to start out with a balanced equation.

1.    Mole-Mole Problems

Problem:  How many moles of HCl are needed to react with 0.87 moles of Al?

Step 1: Balance The Equation & Calculate the Ratios

2Al:6HCl (1:3)        2Al:2AlCl3 (1:1)        2Al:3H2 (1:1.5)

Step 2:  Find the Moles of the Given

0.87 moles of aluminum are reacted with hydrochloric acid

Step 3: Calculate the moles using the ratios

moles HCl = 0.87molAl x  3molHCl/1molAl = 2.6 mol HCl

2.    Mass-Mass Problems (Strategy: Mass g Mole g Mole g Mass)

Problem:  How many grams of Al can be created decomposing 9.8g of  Al2O3?

Step 1: Balance The Equation & Calculate the Ratios

2Al2O3:4Al (1:2)        2Al2O3:3O2 (1:1.5)

Step 2:  Find the Mass of the Given

9.8g Al2O3 are decomposed

Step 3: Calculate the moles of the given (mol/g)

9.8g Al2O3 x (1mol Al2O3/102g Al2O3) = 0.096 mol Al2O3

Step 4: Calculate the moles using the ratios

0.096 mol Al2O3 x (2 mol Al/1 mol Al2O3) = 0.19 mol Al

Step 5: Calculate the mass using the new moles

0.19 mol Al x (27g Al/1 mol Al) = 5.1g Al

3.    Mass-Volume Problems (Strategy: Mass g Mole g Mole g Volume)

Problem:  How many liters of H2 are created from the reaction of 20.0g K?

Step 1: Balance The Equation & Calculate the Ratios

2K:2H2O (1:1)    2K:2KOH (1:1)    2K:1H2 (2:1)

Step 2:  Find the Mass of the Given

20.0g K are used in the reaction

Step 3: Calculate the moles of the given (mol/g)

20.0g K x (1 mol K / 39g K) = 0.513 mol K

Step 4: Calculate the moles using the ratios

0.51 mol K x (1mol H2 /2mol K) = 0.266mol H2

Step 5: Calculate the volume using the new moles

0.266 mol H2 x (22.4L H2 /1mol H2) = 5.75L H2

4.    Volume-Volume Problems

Problem:  How many liters of SO2 will be produced from 26.9L O2?

Step 1: Balance The Equation & Calculate the Ratios

2O2:1S2 (2:1)    2O2:2SO2 (1:1)

Step 2: Find the volume of the given

26.9L O2

Step 3: Calculate the moles of the given

26.9L O2 x (1 mol O2 / 22.4L) = 1.20 mol O2

Step 4: Calculate the moles using the ratios

1.20 mol O2 x (1mol SO2 /1mol  O2) = 1.20 mol SO2

Step 5: Calculate the volume using the new moles

1.20 mol O2 x (1mol SO2 /1mol  O2) x (22.4L /1mol) = 26.9L SO2

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## Best Homework Help For Stoichiometry

### Stoichiometry

• Stoichiometry is derived from greek words, “Stoicheion'' means element and'' metron” means measure. Stoichiometry is the study of the quantitative aspects of a chemical change.

• Stoichiometry is the calculation of the quantities of reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction. In stoichiometry we try to find the masses, volumes, number of particles, energies etc.. of reactants taking part in a chemical reaction and products formed.

• In stoichiometry we always use a balanced chemical equation because an unbalanced chemical equation violates the Law of “conservation of mass”.

• Some basic relations are:

1 mole of a gas = GMW of a gas = 22.4 L at STP

1 mole of a substance = GMW

• For Homo atomic molecules GMW = Atomicity x GAW

• For Hetero atomic molecules GMW = sum of Gram atomic weight of all constituents.It is based on the chemical equation and on the relationship between mass and moles.

• The Avogadro number can be used to calculate the number of atoms or molecules in the given moles of the substances. The expression can be write as:

### Stoichiometry Questions

Question 1: Calculate the number of atoms in 12 g of oxygen gas.

Solution:

Molar mass of oxygen gas = 32.0 g/mol

Number of atoms in 1 oxygen gas molecule = 2

Question  2: Stoichiometry is derived from greek words, “Stoicheion” means element and“ metron” means _________.

(a) Compound

(b) Calculation

(c) Value

(d) Measure

Solution : Stoichiometry is derived from greek words, “Stoicheion” means element and“ metron” means measure

Question 3: 1 mole of any gas   at STP occupies ___________.

(a) 32 litre

(b) 44 litre

(c) 22.4 litre

(d) All the above

Solution : 1 mole of any gas at STP occupies 22.4 litres.

### How do you calculate stoichiometry?

There are some guidelines to calculate stoichiometry.

Assign 1 as the coefficient for the most complex species.

Balance the single-element species in last.

Eliminate fractional coefficients.

While balancing add coefficients only, do not change the chemical formula of any compound.

The number of atoms should be the same on both sides of the reaction.

For example- Let’s balance this equation using guidelines

The equation is not balanced as the number of N and O atoms is more on left (reactants) side

Assigning 1 coefficient in front of the most complex species

Balancing single element compounds

### What is stoichiometry in chemistry?

Stoichiometry is the quantitative relationship between the number of moles of different reactants and products in a chemical reaction. We know that a chemical equation must be balanced and must have the same number of different atoms in the reactants and products. To balance a chemical equation we add coefficients in front of reactants and products. These coefficients are known as stoichiometric coefficients and their study is called stoichiometry.

### Why is stoichiometry so hard?

Stoichiometry problems can have multiple steps, which is not easy to memorize. Basic mathematics skills are required for stoichiometric calculations. Not understanding concepts can make it even more difficult. However, practicing solving problems after learning the concept well makes stoichiometry a lot more fun and interesting.

### How do you do stoichiometry for dummies?

There are four simple steps to calculate stoichiometry:

• Convert the units of given substance to moles.

• Use mole ratio and calculate the moles of substance yielded in the reaction.

• Convert the moles of wanted substance to desired units.

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