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Pac-Man was a video game created in 1980 by Japanese game designer Toru Iwatani. In the game, the player weaves through a maze of dots while being chased by four ghosts: Blinky, Inky, Pinky, and Clyde. Each dot is worth ten points. On the four corners of the board, the player can eat a “power pellet” which temporarily makes the ghosts edible and a flashing blue color. Eating a single ghost results in 200 points, eating two ghosts results in 400 points, three ghosts nets 800 points, and the fourth ghosts gives the player 1600 points. During each round, a different fruit floats through the screen resulting in additional points for the player if he or she can eat them. These fruits range from worth 100 points to up to 5,000 points depending on the round.

 

The player has three “lives.” Life is lost if the player is caught by a ghost. If a player earns 10,000 points, however, he or she earns a bonus life. The player moves on to the next round by eating all of the dots on the board. Each round is progressively harder as the ghosts move faster and more aggressively. There are said to be 256 total rounds, although few have ever gotten that far. The 256th round is said to be flawed and causes the game to badly malfunction.

 

Pac-Man was released to the public in 1980 and quickly became a worldwide sensation. It was a departure of the typical games of the time which mostly involved shooting things like aliens. It was one of the first video games that propelled significant sales of merchandise and toys and is credited with helping to usher in the Golden Age of Video Arcade Games. Not only did Pac-Man become the subject of a popular cartoon, but its derivatives, such as Ms. Pac Man, became immensely popular video games as well. It is estimated that Pac Man itself is the second highest selling video game of all time, with over 2.5 billion dollars in sales (close to eight billion dollars in sales adjusted for inflation today).

Sours: https://mrnussbaum.com/uploads/activities/rc/pacmanrc.htm

The Official Site for PAC-MAN - Video Games & More

HISTORY

It's been 40 years since the beloved
PAC-MAN game was introduced to the world.
Let's take a look back on PAC-MAN's history.

We'll go through 30 years of PAC-MAN in chronological order.
On the left are PAC-MAN events and happenings, and on the right you can find various games dedicated to PAC-MAN.
You can click on the game title on the right for more details.

1980

HAPPY BIRTHDAY!

●On May 22, the first focus test was
held for PAC-MAN.
The game is released to the Japanese
public in July.
Planning - Toru Iwatani / Sound - Toshio Kai /
Programming - Shigeo Funaki
●PAC-MAN takeover event at Shinjuku ALTA
On June 29, 1980, before PAC-MAN was released to the public, the PAC-MAN's game screen appears on Shinjuku ALTA's large-screen television monitor. The concept of advertising video games back then was rather rare, so the sudden appearance of the game screen took many there by surprise.
●US Release→MEGA HIT!
A major hit in the United States!
The game comes to the United States in October of the same year.
Soon after, PAC-MAN takes the world by storm.
In 1 year, more than 100,000 units are sold.
●GAME&WATCH Releases in Japan
●GAME
King & Balloon
A shooting game where you protect the King from the attacking Balloons.
The commemorative, first introduction of Bandai Namco Entertainment’s popular character, PAC-MAN. With its simple rules, intuitive controls, and cute characters, PAC-MAN took, not only Japan, but the whole world by storm.

1981

●GAME
Galaga
A shooting game designed with a Dual Fighter and bonus stage system.
Ms. PAC-MAN was born in the United States, featuring a female PAC-MAN with a ribbon on top. The game system is the same as PAC-MAN, and comes with added features, such as an alternating maze design system with 2 warp tunnels.

1982

●MS. PAC-MAN a huge hit
MS. PAC-MAN's release is welcomed with open arms as it takes the US by storm, even beyond PAC-MAN.
●Cartoon broadcast in the United States
The Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. produced cartoon begins its prime time broadcast on ABC television network channels, achieving viewership ratings as high as 56%.
●PAC-MAN FEVER
Buckner & Garcia releases the hit single "PAC-MAN Fever," which went as high as 9th place on Billboard's Hot 100 chart, while the record album went on to place as high as 24th in the music charts.
●GAME
Dig Dug
A strategic action game where the player digs through the ground to find and defeat enemies.
SUPER PAC-MAN is born in Japan as the next PAC-MAN game. Instead of eating PAC-DOTS, PAC-MAN moved through the maze to munch on various fruits, while avoiding the ghosts. Consuming a Super Power Pellet transformed PAC-MAN into the invincible, Super PAC-MAN. The game is also the first to feature the series cameo bonus stage.

1983

●"Mickey Mouse" of the 80s
PAC-MAN became so popular in the US that fans related to PAC-MAN as being the "Mickey Mouse of the 80s."
●Family Computer Releases in Japan
●GAME
Xevious
An extremely popular shooting game that opened the doors to innovation for many video games to come.
The game is played by eating all the fruits on the stage, while avoiding the ghosts. The game introduces a new character, "Mil." The playful Mil moves around the screen to move the fruits away from PAC-MAN. The game is unique in that it doesn't have any Power Pellets. In turn, PAC-MAN can retaliate by eating special powerup items such as the Boss Galaxian and Rally X icons.

1984

●GAME
The Tower of Druaga
An action role-playing game where players solved various mysteries to get to the top of the tower.
The game marks the series first side-scrolling action platformer where PAC-MAN goes on a journey to help a lost fairy get back to Fairyland, while avoiding enemy ghosts and obstacles. The cute and lively animations brought life to the characters, bringing about a new frontier to the PAC-MAN series with a hint of hidden secrets strewn throughout the rounds. The game's tagline in Japanese was "wonders around every corner."

1985

●GAME
Dragon Buster
A side-scrolling action game where the player battles dragons to save the princess.

1987

●GAME
Dragon Spirit
A shooting game where the hero transformed into a dragon battles an evil demon king.
The game reintroduces the basic mechanics that made the first PAC-MAN great - moving around a maze eating PAC-DOTS while avoiding the ghosts. What takes the game apart is that the characters and the mazes are displayed in 3D. This introduced new game features such as PAC-MAN being able to jump over the ghosts instead of simply running from them. With new types of ghosts and a variety of stages, the game thrilled players throughout the world.

1988

●GAME
Metal Hawk
A shooting game where the player rides a large-sized arcade cabinet to control the battle helicopter, Metal Hawk.

1989

●Pop Art Debut
In homage to the pop art great, Andy Warhol, his then studio Art Director and Master Printmaker, Rupert Jasen Smith, creates a PAC-MAN inspired pop art themed after Japan.
In October, within the same year, his masterpiece was displayed at the Japan Project Announcement Commemoration Party, which was held at The Okura Tokyo.
●Game Boy Releases in Japan
●GAME
Valkyrie No Densetsu
An action game where the popular character, Valkyrie, goes about on her adventure using her sword and magic.

1990

●SUPER Famicom Releases in Japan
●Neo Geo Releases in Japan
●Game Gear Releases in Japan
●GAME
Galaxian 3
A large-scale 3D shooting game made for placement at amusement and theme parks.

1991

●GAME
Starblade
A shooting game where the player controls a Starfighter across a polygonal 3D world.

1993

●GAME
Ridge Racer
A 3D racing game where players drives across beautiful tracks using speed-hungry drift techniques.

1994

1995

●Virtual Boy Releases in Japan
●GAME
Tales of Phantasia
The commemorative 1st release of the uber popular "Tales of" RPG series.
The Ghost Witch (Abylusnetter in Japanese) casts a spell on PAC-MAN sending him back in time. The game's objective is for PAC-MAN to return to the present by adventuring through more than 50 different stages ranging from mountains, forests, temples, castles, and more, while using actions such as jumping and swimming in this side-scrolling platformer game.

1996

●Nintendo64 Releases in Japan
●Game Boy Pocket Releases in Japan
●GAME
Soul Edge
A weapon wielding fighting game where the story centers around the legendary sword, Soul Edge.
The latest of the arcade games since PAC-MANia's release in 1987. The game can be played in the classic compilation, "Namco Classic Collection Vol.2," which was released by then Namco. The basic PAC-MAN rules applies where you control PAC-MAN to eat the PAC-DOTS, while avoiding the ghosts as you navigate through the maze. New to the series are Jump Panels, Dash Arrows, 3 different types of Power Pellets, and the addition of items, such as Capsules, Magic Wands, and more. The game, for the first time within the series, allowed up to 2-player onscreen game play.

1997

●GAME
Klonoa: Door to Phantomile
A side-scrolling action game featuring the game's hero, Klonoa the "Dream Traveler."

1998

●Racing Game Debut
PAC-MAN makes his grand entrance to the PlayStation game, "R4 -RIDGE RACER TYPE 4-," under his race team, "Pac Racing Club (PRC)." The PAC-MAN motif racing machine garnered the attention of many game players around the world.
●Dreamcast Releases in Japan
●Game Boy Color Releases in Japan
●GAME
Soulcalibur
A successor to the popular Soul Edge game where players controls weapon wielding characters in competition against other players.

1999

PERFECT SCORE!

●The World's First Perfect Score!
Billy Mitchell of Florida becomes the first person to ever achieve the game's perfect score of 3,333,360 points. In order to achieve a perfect score, the player would have to clear all 256 stages without a single miss, and consume all PAC-DOTS, fruits, and ghosts (consume 4 ghosts with each Power Pellet).
●WonderSwan Releases in Japan
●Pocket Station Releases in Japan
●Neo Geo Pocket Color Releases in Japan
●GAME
Mr. Driller
A puzzle action game where the player controls a cute character to dig through the stage to the very bottom.
The series first, 3D action game that was released in commemoration of PAC-MAN's 20th anniversary. PAC-MAN embarks on an adventure through unique stages, from pirate ships to ancient ruins to outer space and more, as he tries to save his captured friends. The game is chock filled with old and new actions, such as jumping, bounding, using trampolines, doing speed turns, hip attacks, and more.

2000

●Racing Game Reappearance!
PAC-MAN takes stage again in the PlayStation 2 release, "Ridge Racer V," where he joins the race with his 4 ghost motif racing machines, "PAC-MAN," "AKABEI," "AOSUKE," "PINKY," and "GUZUTA" ("PAC-MAN," "Blinky," "Inky," "Pinky," and "Clyde" respectively).
●PlayStation 2 Releases in Japan
A 3D action game where the player navigates the pink-ribbon topped Ms. PAC-MAN through various mazes as she tries to regain peace in Pac Land. Mazes are cleared by avoiding ghosts and eating PAC-DOTS, while solving puzzles strewn throughout the mazes. Over 180 unique mazes await as she tries to save the princess in need.

2001

●Nintendo Gamecube Releases in Japan
●Xbox Releases in Japan
●Pokémon Mini Releases in Japan
●Game Boy Advance Releases in Japan
●GAME
Taiko Drum Master
A rhythm game featuring a Japanese drum used to play along with various music pieces.

2002

●GAME
Xenosaga Episode I: Der Wille zur Macht
A large-scale RPG based in a futuristic world where thousands of years has passed. The first game release to the Xenosaga trilogy.
A 4-game compilation of popular classic PAC-MAN games featuring "PAC-MAN," "PAC MANIA," "PAC ATTACK," and "PAC-MAN ARRANGEMENT."
This is a 3D action game that follows "PAC-MAN World 20th Anniversary". PAC-MAN goes on an adventure to reclaim the five "golden fruits" hidden by the mischievous ghosts. There are various stages in PAC Land, where the familiar ghosts hinder his way and where also, a huge machine appears! On the underwater stage, there is a scene where PAC-MAN gets on the submarine "PAC Marine" and fights against the ghost's submarine.

2003

●GAME
Tales of Symphonia
The most well-known game among the "Tales of" series that has also been animated due to its popularity.

2004

●Nintendo DS Releases in Japan
●PlayStation Portable Releases in Japan
●GAME
Katamari Damacy
A unique action game where the players rolls the "Katamari" to collect objects until it grows large enough to become a star.

2005

●Guinness Approved!
In recognition of PAC-MAN's 1980 release where it installed 293,822 arcade units within 7 years, the Guinness World Records acknowledged the game as the "Most Successful Coin-Operated Game" in the world.
●Book Release
Enterbrain publishes the book "PAC-MAN No Game Gaku Nyumon" written by the developer himself, Toru Iwatani.
●Xbox 360 Releases in Japan
●GAME
THE [email protected]
A raising simulation game where the player produces idol candidates to become top idols.
It is an arranged version of "PAC-MAN" and is included in the PlayStation Portable software "NAMCO MUSEUM”. Various gimmicks are added to the stage while keeping the basic rules.
At the final stage of each world, the ghosts power up and plays one-on-one with PAC-MAN. It is also possible for two players to play cooperatively at the same time.
A novel and unique game, characteristic of Nintendo DS, where you can draw a PAC-MAN picture with a touch pen and the picture will start moving on the screen. The player has to draw PAC-MAN to defeats the ghost.
Items that assist PAC-MAN, such as arrows and bombs, will also start moving when the player draws them. It is a new type of game in which all operations are performed with a touch pen.
This is the story when PAC-MAN was a boy. PAC-MAN, who has been made into a sphere by the mysterious ray of Rock'n Roller Ghost, "Golvis", embarks on an adventure journey to help his friends. This is a very unique game where you can control the rolling PAC-MAN with the touch pen.

2006

●PAC-MAN Defense
The word, "PAC-MAN defense," buzzes from the Livedoor acquisition attempt of Fuji Television.
*"PAC-MAN defense" is a terminology that defines a defensive strategy where a targeted company tries to acquire the buyer.
●PlayStation 3 Releases in Japan
●Wii Releases in Japan
●Nintendo DS Lite Releases in Japan
●GAME
Ridge Racer 7
A high-vision 3D racing game that was released at launch with the PlayStation 3 console.
This is a game with more stages added, based on the "PAC-MAN ARRANGE" recorded in "Namco Museum Vol.2". In an ad hoc competition up to 4 players can play at the same time, competing for the number of cookies eaten.

2007

WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP

The Xbox 360 PAC-MAN World Championship tournament is held in New York. The winner was Mexico's representative, Carlos Romero. USA representative, Billy Mitchell, who scored the first perfect score in 1999, came out in 8th place.
●Hideki Matsui's Nickname
New York Yankees player, Hideki Matsui, was given the nickname "PAC-MAN" by then manager, Joe Torre.
●GAME
Ace Combat 6 - Kaihou He No Senka (Ace Combat 6: Fires of Liberation)
A flight simulation game with full online multiplayer features.
A new type of PAC-MAN that was developed and supervised by PAC-MAN's father, the legend himself, Toru Iwatani. The game focuses on challenging players in time trials to see who can gain the highest score within a set time limit. The game features cool music, updated visuals, and reflex testing speed throughout the game. Player scores are uploaded via the Internet and pitted against competitors worldwide to see who has the highest score in the world.
It is a battle-type game played by connecting one Game Boy Advance and 1 to 3 Game Cube controllers to the Nintendo Game Cube. One player becomes PAC-MAN and the other(s) become the ghost and the chase begins! If PAC-MAN is caught by a ghost, the person that caught him will become PAC-MAN in the next round. The first person to reach the clear score wins.
This is a game based in “Motos” announced in 1985 (recorded in the “Namco Museum Remix”, known in Japan as “Let's Play Together! Namco Carnival”), with the characters changed to PAC-MAN.
You can clear it by hitting PAC-MAN against the enemies on the stage and dropping them all! On the boss stage, you can fight against the boss by making full use of body hits and special actions.
The game is a Wii remix version of the 2005 Nintendo DS release, "Pac 'n Roll" game. Players roll PAC-MAN throughout the stage to eat the PAC-DOTS found in various areas, while avoiding enemy ghosts. Players transform PAC-MAN into different forms to use various abilities by using the new Chocolate powerup item.

2008

2009

Sours: https://pacman.com/en/history/
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  2. Building character dnd
  3. Phoneinfoga online

List of Pac-Man clones

Wikipedia list article

In video gaming, Pac-Man clones are unauthorized versions of Namco's popular maze chasearcade gamePac-Man or games that wholesale borrow the design of Pac-Man. The combined sales of counterfeit arcade machines sold nearly as many units as the original Pac-Man, which had sold more than 300,000 machines.[1]

Like the original game, Pac-Man clones typically have the goal of clearing a maze of dots while eluding deadly adversaries. When special dots are eaten, the protagonist can chase and consume the pursuers for a brief period. Clones may vary the audio/visual theme, use different maze layouts, slightly tweak features, or even invert elements such as filling the maze rather than emptying it, but they have the same general feel of Pac-Man.

The Giant List of Classic Game Programmers lists 57 Pac-Man clones released for various platforms.[2]

Arcade clones[edit]

Lock 'n' Chase was developed and published by Data East in Japan in 1981, and was later published in North America by Taito. Here, Pac-Man was replaced with a thief stealing coins from a bank vault. The ghosts were replaced with police, and the thief could temporarily block passages with doors. The game was later licensed to Mattel who produced the Intellivision and Atari 2600 home console versions in 1982.

Mighty Mouth is a game by A-1 Machines that District Court Judge Warren Keith Urbom described as "for all practical purposes, identical to ...Pac-Man"[3] Among the similarities cited were the color and shape of the player character and ghosts, the maze configurations, the sound effects, the paths of the characters in the attract mode and the paths of the characters in both the attract mode and a game where the player does not move.[4] Midway, owners of the Pac-Man copyrights, were granted summary judgment for copyright and trademark infringement in 1983.[5]

Piranha was released by GL in 1981. The central character is a dot-chomping piranha, and squid creatures replace the ghost monsters.

The Hand was released by TIC in 1981. The central character is a dot-chomping hand, and the ghost monsters are replaced by hands representing Rock (a fist), Paper (splayed fingers), and Scissors (two fingers outstretched).

Contemporary home system clones[edit]

Taxman is a 1981 Pac-Man clone for the Apple II programmed by Brian Fitzgerald.[6] Atari sued Fitzgerald and he sold the port to Atari which they ended up selling as a licensed version of the game.

Ghost Hunter from Arcade Plus is a 1981 clone for the Atari 8-bit family that plays The Twilight Zone theme at the start of the game.

Jawbreaker (1981) for the Atari 8-bit family re-themed the gameplay, winning a best action game award in 1983.[citation needed] Atari threatened to sue the publishers, Sierra On-Line, but they released the game anyway. They won the ensuing lawsuit.

K.C. Munchkin! is a 1981 release in the official line of games for the Magnavox Odyssey². It is very heavily based on Namco's 1980 arcade game Pac-Man, but not a direct clone. It was however, similar enough for Atari to sue Philips and force them to cease production of Munchkin. In the 1982 case Atari, Inc. v. North American Philips Consumer Electronics Corp., an Appellate court found that Phillips had copied Pac-Man and made alterations that "only tend to emphasize the extent to which it deliberately copied the Plaintiff's work." The ruling was one of the first to establish how copyright law would apply to the look and feel of computer software.

Scarfman is a 1981 Pac-Man clone for the monochrome TRS-80 computers.

Hungry Horace is a 1982 Pac-Man clone for the ZX Spectrum.

Munch Man is a 1982 clone from Texas Instruments for the TI-99/4A home computer. Instead of clearing a maze, the player fills it with "links" (in Munch Man parlance)—a change made by TI to avoid possible lawsuits.

Snack Attack is a 1982 clone for the Apple II written by Dan Illowsky and published by Datamost.[6] It became a top selling game for the Apple II.[7]

Snapper's initial release for the BBC Micro and Acorn Electron,[8] by Acornsoft in 1982,[9][10] was so close to Pac-Man (including the design of the game's characters) that this version had to be withdrawn and re-released with the characters changed.[11][12] The player's character became a round yellow face with very short legs wearing a green cowboy hat and the ghosts became skinny humanoid monsters.

CatChum is a text-only Pac-Man clone for Kaypro's early line of luggable home computers. It was created by Yahoo Software and released in 1982 and 1983. Because the early Kaypros did not have graphics capability, this clone used dashes and various punctuation marks to construct a maze. The letter A served as ghosts and the fruits were replaced by dollar signs. The Pac-man was a letter C which went from upper to lower case, intermittently, to simulate a chomping Pac-man. A major down side of the game was that early Kaypros were not able to flip text characters. As a result, the CatChum Pac-Man was always facing right, even when chomping pills on its left.

3-Demon is a 3D vector-graphics Pac-Man clone developed by PC Research in 1983 for MS-DOS. As opposed to using a single screen maze, the game is placed in a 3D first-person perspective, with the ghosts being cyclopean demons.

Jelly Monsters for the Commodore VIC-20 is a faithful port of Namco's Pac-Man by HAL Laboratory who had the home computer rights to Namco's games in Japan at the time, but when the games were released in North America, the names were changed to avoid legal issues with Atari, Inc. who had the home computer rights in North America to Jelly Monsters for the VIC-20 which was published by Commodore International, Atari ended up suing HAL and Commodore anyway and won the lawsuit, Atari pulled off HAL's VIC-20 port and released their own version, after the lawsuit HAL sold the Japanese home computer rights to Dempa who ended up porting the game to many home computers in Japan, this excluded the MSX version of the game of which Namco ported themselves under their Namcot branding.[13]

Devil World for the Famicom is a 1984 Pac-Man clone designed by Shigeru Miyamoto[14]

Mini and mainframe clones[edit]

Pac-Man is a clone for the Xerox Alto which was the first computer that used a mouse-driven Graphical User Interface. The gameplay is slightly unusual as the Pac-Man character is controlled with a mouse.

PAC is a clone for the CDC 6000 series of mainframe computers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Leonard Herman; Jer Horwitz; Steve Kent; Skyler Miller (2002). "The History of Video Games"(PDF). GameSpot. p. 7. Archived from the original(PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  2. ^Hague, James (April 13, 2021). "The Giant List of Classic Game Programmers". Dadgum. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  3. ^Midway Mfg. Co. v. Dirkschneider (Dirkschneider I), 543 F.Supp. 466, 477 (D. Neb. 1981)
  4. ^Dirkschneider I, 543 F.Supp. at 477
  5. ^Midway Mfg. Co. v. Dirkschneider (Dirkschneider II), 571 F.Supp. 282 (D. Neb. 1983)
  6. ^ abHague, James. "The Giant List of Classic Game Programmers".
  7. ^"Inside the Industry"(PDF). Computer Gaming World. September–October 1982. p. 2. Retrieved 2016-03-28.
  8. ^Jackson, Jane (December 1983). "The Micro User Games Software Review: Snapper Acornsoft". The Micro User (Issue 1-10). Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  9. ^Edwards, Dave A. "Snapper". Archived from the original on 2011-04-27. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  10. ^Reed, Martin. "Electron Games Reviews: Play it Again Sam 7". Electron User (Issue 6.9). Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  11. ^Robinson, Oliver. "Only the Best BBC Micro Games". Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  12. ^Reeves, Alex. "Classic Retro Games". Retro Gamer. Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  13. ^"Generation MSX's Pac-Man page".
  14. ^Dan Whitehead (2008-11-17). "Virtual Console Roundup". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Pac-Man_clones
Pacman Minecraft 3D game! Minecraft games, Best shooter, play arcade, funny games, lol

Pac-Man: Adventures in Time

Developer

Creative Asylum, Mind's Eye Productions

Game system(s)

PC (compatible with Windows 95 to Windows 10)

Release date(s)

US: October 31, 2000
EU: November 15, 2000
JP: Early 2000s

Number of players

1 player (up to 4 players in some bonus modes)

Pac-Man: Adventures In Time (パックマン アドベンチャー イン タイム Pakkuman Adobenchā in Taimu) is a PC game released in 2000, published by Hasbro Interactive and developed by Creative Asylum and Mind's Eye Productions.

Plot Synopsis

The game begins with Inky and Clyde (hesitantly) giving the main villain, Mollusc, a golden Power Pellet known as the Artifact. Mollusc destroys the Artifact, scattering its pieces into five key periods of time itself. To prevent the Artifact from ever being destroyed, Pac-Man journeys, via time machine, through the Prehistoric Era, Egyptian Times, Medieval Times, the Wild West, and the Future.

Gameplay

Quest Mode

Adventures in Time follows the same gameplay formula from the original Pac-Man. The player must collect all of the Pac-Dots in each maze, whilst avoiding Ghosts and other obstacles. Pac-Man also has the ability to jump, but there is a few seconds delay after each jump, so they must be timed perfectly.

The main "gimmick" of this release lies in the mazes themselves. Being rendered in 3D, they can feature slopes, "natural" obstacles like rolling boulders, and even second-stories hovering above the lower maze. Some mazes take the shapes of cubes, spheres, and cylinders, rather than just being flat. The levels can be played in either an overhead view (much like the original arcade games) or a fully 3D display, which better exaggerates the features and environments surrounding Pac-Man.

The ghosts are similar to their appearance in previous Pac-Man games, but each ghost's appearance is altered depending on what location they are in. If the player takes too long in a level, a warning siren plays and the message "Blinky Approaching" appears; Blinky will now become faster and more aggressive.

Minigames

Many minigames are included in the game as well in between levels. They include:

  • Cannibal Dash - Pac-Man slides through a long path in order to reach the goal, with Blinky, Pinky, Inky and Clyde in pursuit.
  • Cobra Challenge - basic "ball in a cup" game.
  • Pharaoh's Challenge - basic card-matching game.
  • Wine and Dinosaur - Throw Pac-Dots at the hungry baby dinosaurs.
  • Log Larks - Pac-Man must navigate through a river inside of a logboat, while being chased by an alligator.
  • Hog Dash - Same as "Cannibal Dash" but camera is at a different angle, and Pac-Man is riding a pig.
  • Ghost Target - Carnival-style shooting game with cardboard cut-out ghost targets.
  • Bowled Over - Pac-Man runs from the oncoming giant boulder.
  • Barrel Ballistics - Hit the fruit with Power Pellets while avoiding hitting bombs.
  • Rail Cart Rush - Get to the finish line before time runs out.
  • Cannon Capers - Same as "Barrel Ballistics" but with a different visual style.
  • Canoe Chase - Harder version of "Log Larks".
  • Mine Cart Madness - A large maze with Pac-Man inside of a minecart, where all dots must be eaten before time runs out.
  • Memory Screens - Same as "Pharaoh's Challenge" but with a different visual style.
  • Asteroid Antics - Pac-Man rides across a starfield on top of an asteroid, and must avoid a giant incoming asteroid while getting to the end goal.
  • Space Surf - Get to end goal before time runs out.

Cheats

Adventures in Time features many cheat codes, which can be entered by pausing the game and typing them out on the keyboard, usually in Caps Lock. Some notable codes include:

  • BEINGPACMANOVICH - Game is switched to a first-person perspective.
  • GETALIFE - Player is given one extra life.
  • HONEYIBLEWUPPACMAN - Pac-Man becomes giant.
  • HONEYISHRUNKPACMAN - Pac-Man becomes tiny.
  • IAINTSCARED - Pac-Man becomes invincible, and can run through ghosts (although he cannot eat them either)
  • ihavenohonour - Player now has infinite lives.
  • senselesswaste - One life is lost.
  • SHOWMETHEMAZES - Game profile is 100% completed; all mazes are unlocked and can be played in Mazes Mode.

Maze Mode

Allows the player to replay through single mazes after they are unlocked in the Quest Mode. Several new mazes appear in this mode as well, after the game is beaten.

Multiplayer

The game also features a multiplayer mode, which is the same as the one found in Ms. Pac-Man Maze Madness, on slightly different boards. Originally the release featured both local and distant online play as well, but the servers are long gone. The playable characters are Pac-Man, Ms. Pac-Man, Baby Pac-Man and Professor Pac-Man.

Trivia

  • Hasbro Interactive was sold to Infogrames immediately after the game's release, due to the Y2K dot-com bubble. This led to a gap where copies of the game were not produced for about a year, until Infogrames reissued the title in North America.
    • During the gap where the game was not on store shelves, leftover Adventures in Time stock was given away in Kellogg's cereal boxes, after Infogrames' rebranding to Atari.
  • A Sega Dreamcast version of Adventures in Time was reportedly in development before being canceled.
  • This is the second game where Pac-Man goes back in time, the first being Pac-In-Time.
  • Early 1.0 copies of Adventures in Time are stated to feature a somewhat vulgar cheat code - "imabitch" - that allows the player to control Ms. Pac-Man. Despite the rumor circulating in the early 2000s, it is still yet to be verified, and 1.0 versions of the game are very difficult to find.
  • This was the final game in Hasbro's series of "arcade revival" games, which was comprised of new entries in franchises such as Q*Bert, Frogger, and Centipede, although this title wasn't released under the Atari brand name that Hasbro owned (although it was originally planned to, alongside Frogger 2: Swampy's Revenge). The aforementioned Infogrames continued to release new arcade-based titles, such as Ms. Pac-Man: Quest for the Golden Maze.
  • The second level, Prehistoric Peril, features a maze based on the layout of New Puck-X, a bootleg hack of the original Pac-Man game.

Gallery

Screenshots

Cutscene Stills

Artwork

Pac-Man - Adventures in Time Coverart

Box art.

Pmait-pacman

Character artwork.

[v · e · ?]

Sours: https://pacman.fandom.com/wiki/Pac-Man:_Adventures_in_Time

Game pacman shooting

Pac-Man

This article is about the video game. For the character, see Pac-Man (character). For other uses, see Pac-Man (disambiguation).

1980 video game made by Namco

1980 video game

Pac-Man
Pac flyer.png

North American sales flyer

Developer(s)Namco
Publisher(s)
Designer(s)Toru Iwatani
Programmer(s)Shigeo Funaki
Shigeichi Ishimura
Composer(s)Shigeichi Ishimura
Toshio Kai
SeriesPac-Man
Platform(s)

Arcade

  • Atari 2600, Atari 5200, Apple II, Atari 8-bit family, MSX, Nintendo Entertainment System, Commodore 64, Commodore VIC-20, Intellivision, ZX Spectrum, TI-99/4A, IBM PC, Game Boy, Game Gear, Game Boy Color, Neo Geo Pocket Color, PC, Mobile phone, Game Boy Advance, iPod Touch, Xbox 360, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, iOS, Android
Release
Genre(s)Maze
Mode(s)Single-player, multiplayer (alternating turns)

Pac-Man[a] is a mazeaction game developed and released by Namco for arcades in 1980. The original Japanese title of Puck Man was changed to Pac-Man for international releases as a preventative measure against defacement of the arcade machines by changing the P to an F.[4] In North America, the game was released by Midway Manufacturing as part of its licensing agreement with Namco America. The player controls Pac-Man, who must eat all the dots inside an enclosed maze while avoiding four colored ghosts. Eating large flashing dots called "Power Pellets" causes the ghosts to turn blue, allowing Pac-Man to eat them for bonus points.

Game development began in early 1979, directed by Toru Iwatani with a nine-man team. Iwatani wanted to create a game that could appeal to women as well as men, because most video games of the time had themes of war or sports.[citation needed] Although the inspiration for the Pac-Man character was the image of a pizza with a slice removed, Iwatani has said he also rounded out the Japanese character for mouth, kuchi (Japanese: 口). The in-game characters were made to be cute and colorful to appeal to younger players. The original Japanese title of Puckman was derived from the titular character's hockey-puck shape, and is now the mascot and flagship icon of Bandai Namco Entertainment

Pac-Man was a widespread critical and commercial success, leading to several sequels, merchandise, and two television series, as well as a hit single by Buckner and Garcia. The franchise remains one of the highest-grossing and best-selling games, generating more than $14 billion in revenue (as of 2016[update]) and 43 million units in sales combined, and has an enduring commercial and cultural legacy, commonly listed as one of the greatest video games of all time.

Gameplay

In-game screenshot. The four ghosts are in the center of the screen with Pac-Man situated underneath them. To the bottom is the player's life count and the level icon (represented in this case by a cherry), to the top is the player's score.

Pac-Man is an action[6]maze chase video game; the player controls the eponymous character through an enclosed maze. The objective of the game is to eat all of the dots placed in the maze while avoiding four colored ghosts — Blinky (red), Pinky (pink), Inky (cyan), and Clyde (orange) — that pursue him. When Pac-Man eats all of the dots, the player advances to the next level. If Pac-Man makes contact with a ghost, he will lose a life; the game ends when all lives are lost. Each of the four ghosts have their own unique, distinct artificial intelligence (A.I.), or "personalities"; Blinky gives direct chase to Pac-Man, Pinky and Inky try to position themselves in front of Pac-Man, usually by cornering him, and Clyde will switch between chasing Pac-Man and fleeing from him.[7][8]

Placed at the four corners of the maze are large flashing "energizers", or "power pellets". Eating these will cause the ghosts to turn blue with a dizzied expression and reverse direction. Pac-Man can eat blue ghosts for bonus points; when eaten, their eyes make their way back to the center box in the maze, where the ghosts "regenerate" and resume their normal activity. Eating multiple blue ghosts in succession increases their point value. After a certain amount of time, blue-colored ghosts will flash white before turning back into their normal, lethal form. Eating a certain number of dots in a level will cause a bonus item - usually in the form of a fruit – to appear underneath the center box, which can be eaten for bonus points.

The game increases in difficulty as the player progresses; the ghosts become faster and the energizers' effect decreases in duration to the point where the ghosts will no longer turn blue and edible. To the sides of the maze are two "warp tunnels", which allow Pac-Man and the ghosts to travel to the opposite side of the screen. Ghosts become slower when entering and exiting these tunnels. Levels are indicated by the fruit icon at the bottom of the screen. In-between levels are short cutscenes featuring Pac-Man and Blinky in humorous, comical situations. The game becomes unplayable at the 256th level due to an integer overflow that affects the game's memory.[9]

Development

After acquiring the struggling Japanese division of Atari in 1974, video game developer Namco began producing its own video games in-house, as opposed to simply licensing them from other developers and distributing them in Japan.[10][11] Company president Masaya Nakamura created a small video game development group within the company and ordered them to study several NEC-produced microcomputers to potentially create new games with.[12][13] One of the first people assigned to this division was a young 24-year-old employee named Toru Iwatani.[14] He created Namco's first video game Gee Bee in 1978, which while unsuccessful helped the company gain a stronger foothold in the quickly-growing video game industry.[15][16] He also assisted in the production of two sequels, Bomb Bee and Cutie Q, both released in 1979.[17][18]

The Japanese video game industry had surged in popularity with games such as Space Invaders and Breakout, which led to the market being flooded with similar titles from other manufacturers in an attempt to cash in on the success.[19][20] Iwatani felt that arcade games only appealed to men for their crude graphics and violence,[19] and that arcades in general were seen as seedy environments.[21] For his next project, Iwatani chose to create a non-violent, cheerful video game that appealed mostly to women,[22] as he believed that attracting women and couples into arcades would potentially make them appear to be much-more family friendly in tone.[19] Iwatani began thinking of things that women liked to do in their time; he decided to center his game around eating, basing this on women liking to eat desserts and other sweets.[23] His game was initially called Pakkuman, based on the Japanese onomatopoeia term “paku paku taberu”,[24] referencing the mouth movement of opening and closing in succession.[22]

The game that later became Pac-Man began development in early 1979 and took a year and five months to complete, the longest ever for a video game up to that point.[25] Iwatani enlisted the help of nine other Namco employees to assist in production, including composer Toshio Kai, programmer Shigeo Funaki, and hardware engineer Shigeichi Ishimura.[26] Care was taken to make the game appeal to a “non-violent” audience, particularly women, with its usage of simple gameplay and cute, attractive character designs.[25][21] When the game was being developed, Namco was underway with designing Galaxian, which utilized a then-revolutionary RGB color display, allowing sprites to use several colors at once instead of utilizing colored strips of cellophane that was commonplace at the time;[25] this technological accomplishment allowed Iwatani to greatly enhance his game with bright pastel colors, which he felt would help attract players.[25] The idea for energizers was a concept Iwatani borrowed from Popeye the Sailor, a cartoon character that temporarily acquires superhuman strength after eating a can of spinach;[23] it is also believed that Iwatani was also partly inspired by a Japanese children's story about a creature that protected children from monsters by devouring them.[25] Frank Fogleman, the co-founder of Gremlin Industries, believes that the maze-chase gameplay of Pac-Man was inspired by Sega's Head On (1979), a similar arcade game that was popular in Japan.[27]

Iwatani has often claimed that the character of Pac-Man himself was designed after the shape of a pizza with a missing slice while he was at lunch; in a 1986 interview he said that this was only half-truth,[14] and that the Pac-Man character was also based on him rounding out and simplifying the Japanese character “kuchi” (口), meaning “mouth”.[28][14] The four ghosts were made to be cute, colorful and appealing, utilizing bright, pastel colors and expressive blue eyes.[25] Iwatani had used this idea before in Cutie Q, which features similar ghost-like characters, and decided to incorporate it into Pac-Man.[19] He was also inspired by the television series Casper the Friendly Ghost and the manga Obake no Q-Taro.[23] Ghosts were chosen as the game's main antagonists due to them being used as villainous characters in animation.[23] The idea for the fruit bonuses was based on graphics displayed on slot machines, which often use symbols such as cherries and bells.[29]

Originally, Namco president Masaya Nakamura had requested that all of the ghosts be red and thus indistinguishable from one another. Iwatani believed that the ghosts should be different colors, and he received unanimous support from his colleagues for this idea. Each of the ghosts were programmed to have their own distinct personalities, so as to keep the game from becoming too boring or impossibly difficult to play.[25][31] Each ghost's name gives a hint to its strategy for tracking down Pac-Man: Shadow ("Blinky") always chases Pac-Man, Speedy ("Pinky") tries to get ahead of him, Bashful ("Inky") uses a more complicated strategy to zero in on him, and Pokey ("Clyde") alternates between chasing him and running away.[25] (The ghosts' Japanese names, translated into English, are Chaser, Ambusher, Fickle, and Stupid, respectively.) To break up the tension of constantly being pursued, humorous intermissions between Pac-Man and Blinky were added.[20] The sound effects were among the last things added to the game,[25] created by Toshio Kai.[21] In a design session, Iwatani noisily ate fruit and made gurgling noises to describe to Kai how he wanted the eating effect to sound.[21] Upon completion, the game was titled Puck Man, based on the working title and the titular character's distinct hockey puck-like shape.[11]

Release

Location testing for Puck Man began on May 22, 1980 in Shibuya, Tokyo, to a relatively positive fanfare from players.[23] A private showing for the game was done in June, followed by a nationwide release in July.[11] Eyeing the game's success in Japan, Namco initialized plans to bring the game to international countries, particularly the United States.[25] Before showing the game to distributors, Namco America made a number of changes, such as altering the names of the ghosts.[25] The biggest of these was the game's title; executives at Namco were worried that vandals would change the “P” in Puck Man to an “F”, forming an obscene name.[11][32] Masaya Nakamura chose to rename it to Pac-Man, as he felt it was closer to the game's original Japanese title of Pakkuman.[11] In Europe, the game was released under both titles, Pac-Man and Puck Man.[33]

When Namco presented Pac-Man and Rally-X to potential distributors at the 1980 AMOA tradeshow in November,[34] executives believed that Rally-X would be the best-selling game of that year.[11][35] According to Play Meter magazine, both Pac-Man and Rally-X received mild attention at the show. Namco had initially approached Atari to distribute Pac-Man, but Atari refused the offer.[36]Midway Manufacturing subsequently agreed to distribute both Pac-Man and Rally-X in North America, announcing their acquisition of the manufacturing rights on November 22[37] and releasing them in December.[38]

Conversions

Pac-Man was ported to a plethora of home video game systems and personal computers; the most infamous of these is the 1982 Atari 2600 conversion, designed by Tod Frye and published by Atari.[39] This version of the game was widely criticized for its inaccurate portrayal of the arcade version and for its peculiar design choices, most notably the flickering effect of the ghosts.[40][41][42] However, it was a commercial success, having sold over seven million copies. Atari also released versions for the Intellivision, Commodore VIC-20, Commodore 64, Apple II, IBM PC, Texas Instruments TI-99/4A, ZX Spectrum, and the Atari 8-bit family of computers. A port for the Atari 5200 was released in 1983, a version that many have seen as a significant improvement over the Atari 2600 version.[43]

Namco themselves released a version for the Family Computer in 1984 as one of the console's first third-party titles,[44] as well as a port for the MSX computer.[45] The Famicom version was later released in North America for the Nintendo Entertainment System by Tengen, a subsidiary of Atari Games. Tengen also produced an unlicensed version of the game in a black cartridge shell, released during a time where Tengen and Nintendo were in bitter disagreements over the latter's stance on quality control for their consoles; this version was later re-released by Namco as an official title in 1993, featuring a new cartridge label and box. The Famicom version was released for the Famicom Disk System in 1990 as a budget title for the Disk Writer kiosks in retail stores.[44] The same year, Namco released a port of Pac-Man for the Game Boy, which allowed for two-player co-operative play via the Game Link Cable peripheral. A version for the Game Gear was released a year later, which also enabled support for multiplayer. In celebration of the game's 20th anniversary in 1999, Namco re-released the Game Boy version for the Game Boy Color, bundled with Pac-Attack and titled Pac-Man: Special Color Edition.[46] The same year, Namco and SNK co-published a port for the Neo Geo Pocket Color, which came with a circular "Cross Ring" that attached to the d-pad to restrict it to four-directional movement.[47]

In 2001, Namco released a port of Pac-Man for various Japanese mobile phones, being one of the company's first mobile game releases.[48] The Famicom version of the game was re-released for the Game Boy Advance in 2004 as part of the Famicom Mini series, released to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Famicom; this version was also released in North America and Europe under the Classic NES Series label.[49]Namco Networks released Pac-Man for BREW mobile devices in 2005.[50] The arcade original was released for the Xbox Live Arcade service in 2006, featuring achievements and online leaderboards. In 2009 a version for iOS devices was published; this release was later rebranded as Pac-Man + Tournaments in 2013, featuring new mazes and leaderboards. The NES version was released for the Wii Virtual Console in 2007. A Roku version was released in 2011,[51] alongside a port of the Game Boy release for the 3DS Virtual Console. Pac-Man was one of four titles released under the Arcade Game Series brand, which was published for the Xbox One, PlayStation 4 and PC in 2016.[52]

Pac-Man is included in many Namco compilations, including Namco Museum Vol. 1 (1995),[53]Namco Museum 64 (1999),[54]Namco Museum Battle Collection (2005),[55]Namco Museum DS (2007), Namco Museum Essentials (2009),[56] and Namco Museum Megamix (2010).[57] In 1996, it was re-released for arcades as part of Namco Classic Collection Vol. 2, alongside Dig Dug, Rally-X and special "Arrangement" remakes of all three titles.[58][59]Microsoft included Pac-Man in Microsoft Return of Arcade (1995) as a way to help attract video game companies to their Windows 95 operating system.[60] Namco released the game in the third volume of Namco History in Japan in 1998.[61] The 2001 Game Boy Advance compilation Pac-Man Collection compiles Pac-Man, Pac-Mania, Pac-Attack and Pac-Man Arrangement onto one cartridge.[62]Pac-Man is also a hidden extra in the arcade game Ms. Pac-Man/Galaga - Class of 1981 (2001).[63][64] A similar cabinet was released in 2005 that featured Pac-Man as the centerpiece.[65]Pac-Man 2: The New Adventures (1993) and Pac-Man World 2 (2002) have Pac-Man as an unlockable extra. Alongside the Xbox 360 remake Pac-Man Championship Edition, it was ported to the Nintendo 3DS in 2012 as part of Pac-Man & Galaga Dimensions.[66] The 2010 Wii game Pac-Man Party and its 2011 3DS remake also include Pac-Man as a bonus game, alongside the arcade versions of Dig Dug and Galaga.[67][68] In 2014, Pac-Man was included in the compilation title Pac-Man Museum for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and PC, alongside several other Pac-Man games.[69] The NES version is one of 30 games included in the NES Classic Edition.[70]

Reception

Reception

Upon its North American debut at AMOA 1980, the game initially received a mild response. Play Meter magazine previewed the game and called it "a cute game which appears to grow on players, something which cute games are not prone to do." They said there's "more to the game than at first appears" but criticized the sound as a drawback, saying it's "good for awhile, then becomes annoying." Upon release, the game exceeded expectations with wide critical and commercial success.[36]

Commercial performance

When it was first released in Japan, Pac-Man was initially only a modest success; Namco's own Galaxian (1979) had quickly outdone the game in popularity, due to the predominately male player base being familiar with its shooting gameplay as opposed to Pac-Man's cute characters and maze-chase theme.[25]Pac-Man eventually became very successful in Japan,[84] where it went on to be Japan's highest-grossing arcade game of 1980 according to the annual Game Machine charts,[85] dethroning Space Invaders (1978) which had topped the annual charts for two years in a row and leading to a shift in the Japanese market away from space shooters towards action games featuring comical characters.[86]Pac-Man was also Japan's fourth highest-grossing arcade game of 1981.[87]

In North America, Pac-Man became a nationwide success. Within one year, more than 100,000 arcade units had been sold which grossed more than $1 billion in quarters.[88][89] Midway had limited expectations prior to release, initially manufacturing 5,000 units for the US, before it caught on immediately upon release there.[90] Some arcades purchased entire rows of Pac-Man cabinets.[11] It overtook Atari's Asteroids (1979) as the best-selling arcade game in the country,[91] and surpassed the film Star Wars: A New Hope (1977) with more than $1 billion in revenue.[92][93]Pac-Man was America's highest-grossing arcade game of 1981,[94][95] and second highest game of 1982.[96] By 1982, it was estimated to have had 30 million active players across the United States.[97] The game's success was partly driven by its popularity among female audiences, becoming "the first commercial videogame to involve large numbers of women as players" according to Midway's Stan Jarocki, with Pac-Man being the favorite coin-op game among female gamers through 1982.[98] Among the nine arcade games covered by How to Win Video Games (1982), Pac-Man was the only one with females accounting for a majority of players.[99]

The number of arcade units sold had tripled to 400,000 by 1982, receiving an estimated total of between seven billion coins[100] and $6 billion.[101][102][103] In a 1983 interview, Nakamura said that though he did expect Pac-Man to be successful, "I never thought it would be this big."[10]Pac-Man is the best-selling arcade game of all time (surpassing Space Invaders), with total estimated earnings ranging from 10 billion coins[89][104] and $3.5 billion ($7.7 billion adjusted for inflation)[105] to $6 billion[101][102][103] ($16.1 billion adjusted for inflation) in arcades. Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man also topped the US RePlaycocktail arcade cabinet charts for 23 months, from February 1982[106] through 1983[107] up until February 1984.[108]

The Atari 2600 version of the game sold over 7.9 million copies,[109] making it the console's best-selling title.[110] In addition, Coleco's tabletop mini-arcade unit sold over 1.5 million units in 1982,[111][112] the Family Computer version and its 2004 Game Boy advance re-release sold a combined 598,000 copies in Japan,[113][114] Thunder Mountain's 1986 budget release for home computers received a Diamond certification from the Software Publishers Association in 1989 for selling over 500,000 copies,[115] and mobile phone ports have sold over 30 million paid downloads as of 2010[update].[116]II Computing also listed the Atarisoft port tenth on the magazine's list of top Apple II games as of late 1985, based on sales and market-share data.[117] As of 2016[update], all versions of Pac-Man are estimated to have grossed a total of more than $12 billion in revenue.[118]

Accolades

Pac-Man was awarded "Best Commercial Arcade Game" at the 1982 Arcade Awards.[80]Pac-Man also won the Video Software Dealers Association's VSDA Award for Best Videogame.[81] In 2001, Pac-Man was voted the greatest video game of all time by a Dixons poll in the UK.[82] The Killer List of Videogames listed Pac-Man as the most popular game of all time.[83] The list aggregator site Playthatgame currently ranks Pac-Man as the #53rd top game of all-time & game of the year.[119]

Impact

Pac-Man is considered by many to be one of the most influential video games of all time;[120][121][122] The game established the maze chase game genre,[120] the first video game with power-ups,[123] and the individual ghosts have deterministic artificial intelligence (AI) that reacts to player actions.[124]Pac-Man is considered one of the first video games to demonstrated the potential of characters in video games;[120][125] its title character was the first original gaming mascot, it increased the appeal of video games with female audiences, and it was gaming's first broad licensing success.[120] It is often cited as the first game with cutscenes (in the form of brief comical interludes about Pac-Man and Blinky chasing each other),[126]: 2  though actually Space Invaders Part II employed a similar style of between-level intermissions in 1979.[127]

Pac-Man was a turning point for the arcade video game industry, which had previously been dominated by space shoot 'em ups since Space Invaders (1978). Pac-Man popularized a genre of "character-led" action games, leading to a wave of character action games involving player characters in 1981, such as Nintendo's prototypical platform gameDonkey Kong, Konami's Frogger and Universal Entertainment's Lady Bug.[128]Pac-Man was one of the first popular non-shooting action games, defining key elements of the genre such as "parallel visual processing" which requires simultaneously keeping track of multiple entities, including the player's location, the enemies, and the energizers.[6]

"Maze chase" games exploded on home computers after the release of Pac-Man. Some of them appeared before official ports and garnered more attention from consumers, and sometimes lawyers, as a result. These include Taxman (1981) and Snack Attack (1982) for the Apple II, Jawbreaker (1981) for the Atari 8-bit family, Scarfman (1981) for the TRS-80, and K.C. Munchkin! (1981) for the Odyssey². Namco themselves produced several other maze chase games, including Rally-X (1980), Dig Dug (1982), Exvania (1992), and Tinkle Pit (1994).[citation needed] Atari sued Philips for creating K.C. Munchkin in the case Atari, Inc. v. North American Philips Consumer Electronics Corp., leading to Munchkin being pulled from store shelves under court order.[129] No major competitors emerged to challenge Pac-Man in the maze-chase subgenre.[130]

Pac-Man also inspired 3D variants of the concept, such as Monster Maze (1982),[131]Spectre (1982), and early first-person shooters such as MIDI Maze (1987; which also had similar character designs).[126]: 5 [132]John Romero credited Pac-Man as the game that had the biggest influence on his career;[133]Wolfenstein 3D includes a Pac-Man level from a first-person perspective.[134][135] Many post-Pac-Man titles include power-ups that briefly turn the tables on the enemy. The game's artificial intelligence inspired programmers who later worked for companies like Bethesda.[124]

Legacy

Guinness World Records has awarded the Pac-Man series eight records in Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition 2008, including "Most Successful Coin-Operated Game". On June 3, 2010, at the NLGD Festival of Games, the game's creator Toru Iwatani officially received the certificate from Guinness World Records for Pac-Man having had the most "coin-operated arcade machines" installed worldwide: 293,822. The record was set and recognized in 2005 and mentioned in the Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition 2008, but finally actually awarded in 2010.[136] The Pac-Man character and game series became an icon of video game culture during the 1980s.

The game has inspired various real-life recreations, involving real people or robots. One event called Pac-Manhattan set a Guinness World Record for "Largest Pac-Man Game" in 2004.[137][138][139]

The business term "Pac-Man defense" in mergers and acquisitions refers to a hostile takeover target that attempts to reverse the situation and instead acquire its attempted acquirer, a reference to Pac-Man's energizers.[140] The "Pac-Man renormalization" is named for a cosmetic resemblance to the character, in the mathematical study of the Mandelbrot set.[141][142] The game's popularity has also led to "Pac-Man" being adopted as a nickname, such as by boxer Manny Pacquiao[143] and the American football player Adam Jones.

On August 21, 2016, in the 2016 Summer Olympics closing ceremony, during a video which showcases Tokyo as the host of the 2020 Summer Olympics, a small segment shows Pac-Man and the ghosts racing and eating dots on a running track.[144]

Merchandise

A wide variety of Pac-Man merchandise have been marketed with the character's image. By 1982, Midway had about 95-105 licensees selling Pac-Man merchandise, including major companies, such as AT&T selling a Pac-Mantelephone. There were more than 500 Pac-Man related products.[90]

Pac-Man themed merchandise sales had exceeded $1 billion ($2.7 billion adjusted for inflation) in the US by 1982.[100][145]Pac-Man related merchandise products included bumber stickers, jewellery, accessories (such as a $20,000 Ms. Pac-Manchoker with 14 karat gold), bicycles, breakfast cereals, popsicles,[90]t-shirts, toys, handheld electronic game imitations, and pasta.

Television

The Pac-Man animated television series produced by Hanna–Barbera aired on ABC from 1982 to 1983.[146] It was the highest-rated Saturday morning cartoon show in the US during late 1982.[90]

A computer-generated animated series titled Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures aired on Disney XD in June 2013.[147][148] As of February 2019, the series was also planned to air on Universal Kids, but it was ultimately canceled due to low coverage of NBCUniversal.

Music

The Buckner & Garcia song "Pac-Man Fever" (1981) went to No. 9 on the Billboard Hot 100 charts,[149] and received a Gold certification for more than 1 million records sold by 1982,[150] and a total of 2.5 million copies sold as of 2008.[151] More than one million copies of the group's Pac-Man Fever album (1982) were sold.[152]

In 1982, "Weird Al" Yankovic recorded a parody of "Taxman" by the Beatles as "Pac-Man". It was eventually released in 2017 as part of Squeeze Box: The Complete Works of "Weird Al" Yankovic.[153][154] In 1992, Aphex Twin (with the name Power-Pill) released Pac-Man, a techno album which consists mostly of samples from the game.

On July 20, 2020, Gorillaz and ScHoolboy Q, released a track entitled "PAC-MAN" as a part of Gorillaz' Song Machine series to commemorate the game's 40th anniversary, with the music video depicting the band's frontman, 2-D, playing a Gorillaz-themed Pac-Man arcade game.[155]

Film

The Pac-Man character appears in the film Pixels (2015), with Denis Akiyama playing series creator Toru Iwatani. Iwatani makes a cameo at the beginning of the film as an arcade technician.[156][157]Pac-Man is referenced and makes an appearance in the 2017 film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.[158] The game, the character, and the ghosts all also appear in the film Wreck-It Ralph,[159][160] as well as the sequel Ralph Breaks the Internet.

In Sword Art Online The Movie: Ordinal Scale where Kirito and his friends beat a virtual reality game called PAC-Man 2024.[161] In the Japanese tokusatsu film Kamen Rider Heisei Generations: Dr. Pac-Man vs. Ex-Aid & Ghost with Legend Riders, a Pac-Man-like character is the main villain.[162]

The 2018 film Relaxer uses Pac-Man as a strong plot element in the story of a 1999 couch-bound man who attempts to beat the game (and encounters the famous Level 256 glitch) before the year 2000 problem occurs.[163]

In 2008, a feature film based on the game was in development.[164][165]

Other gaming media

In 1982, Milton Bradley released a board game based on Pac-Man.[166] Players move up to four Pac-Man characters (traditional yellow plus red, green, and blue) plus two ghosts as per the throws of a pair of dice. The two ghost pieces were randomly packed with one of four colors.[167]

Sticker manufacturer Fleer included rub-off game cards with its Pac-Man stickers. The card packages contain a Pac-Man style maze with all points along the path hidden with opaque coverings. From the starting position, the player moves around the maze while scratching off the coverings to score points.[168]

A Pac-Man-themed downloadable content package for Minecraft was released in 2020 in commemoration of the game's 40th anniversary. This pack introduced a new ghost called 'Creepy', based on the Creeper.[169]

Perfect scores and other records

A perfect score on the original Pac-Man arcade game is 3,333,360 points, achieved when the player obtains the maximum score on the first 255 levels by eating every dot, energizer, fruit and blue ghost without losing a man, then uses all six men to obtain the maximum possible number of points on level 256.[170][171]

The first person to achieve a publicly witnessed and verified perfect score without manipulating the game's hardware to freeze play was Billy Mitchell, who performed the feat on July 3, 1999.[171][172] Some recordkeeping organizations removed Mitchell's score after a 2018 investigation by Twin Galaxies concluded that two unrelated Donkey Kong score performances submitted by Mitchell had not used an unmodified original circuit board.[173] As of July 2020, seven other gamers had achieved perfect Pac-Man scores on original arcade hardware.[174] The world record for the fastest completion of a perfect score, according to Twin Galaxies, is currently held by David Race with a time of 3 hours, 28 minutes, 49 seconds.[175][176]

In December 1982, eight-year-old boy Jeffrey R. Yee received a letter from United States president Ronald Reagan congratulating him on a world record score of 6,131,940 points, possible only if he had passed level 256.[171] In September 1983, Walter Day, chief scorekeeper at Twin Galaxies at the time, took the U.S. National Video Game Team on a tour of the East Coast to visit gamers who claimed the ability to pass that level. None demonstrated such an ability. In 1999, Billy Mitchell offered $100,000 to anyone who could pass level 256 before January 1, 2000. The offer expired with the prize unclaimed.[171]

After announcing in 2018 that it would no longer recognize the first perfect score on Pac-Man, Guinness World Records reversed that decision and reinstated Billy Mitchell's 1999 performance on June 18, 2020.[177]

Remakes and sequels

Further information: List of Pac-Man video games

See also: List of Pac-Man clones

Pac-Man inspired a long series of sequels, remakes, and re-imaginings, and is one of the longest-running video game franchises in history. The first of these was Ms. Pac-Man, developed by the American-based General Computer Corporation and published by Midway in 1982. The character's gender was changed to female in response to Pac-Man's popularity with women, with new mazes, moving bonus items, and faster gameplay being implemented to increase its appeal. Ms. Pac-Man is one of the best-selling arcade games in North America, where Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man had become the most successful machines in the history of the amusement arcade industry.[178] Legal concerns raised over who owned the game caused Ms. Pac-Man to become owned by Namco, who assisted in production of the game. Ms. Pac-Man inspired its own line of remakes, including Ms. Pac-Man Maze Madness (2000), and Ms. Pac-Man: Quest for the Golden Maze, and is also included in many Namco and Pac-Man collections for consoles.

Namco's own follow-up to the original was Super Pac-Man, released in 1982. This was followed by the Japan-exclusive Pac & Pal in 1983.[179] Midway produced many other Pac-Man sequels during the early 1980s, including Pac-Man Plus (1982), Jr. Pac-Man (1983), Baby Pac-Man (1983), and Professor Pac-Man (1984). Other games include the isometric Pac-Mania (1987), the side-scrollers Pac-Land (1984), Hello! Pac-Man (1994), and Pac-In-Time (1995),[180] the 3D platformer Pac-Man World (1999), and the puzzle games Pac-Attack (1991) and Pac-Pix (2005). Iwatani designed Pac-Land and Pac-Mania, both of which remain his favorite games in the series. Pac-Man Championship Edition, published for the Xbox 360 in 2007, was Iwatani's final game before leaving the company. Its neon visuals and fast-paced gameplay was met with acclaim,[181] leading to the creation of Pac-Man Championship Edition DX (2010) and Pac-Man Championship Edition 2 (2016).[182]

Coleco's tabletopMini-Arcade versions of the game yielded 1.5 million units sold in 1982.[183][184]Nelsonic Industries produced a Pac-ManLCDwristwatch game with a simplified maze also in 1982.[185]

Namco Networks sold a downloadable Windows PC version of Pac-Man in 2009 which also includes an enhanced mode which replaces all of the original sprites with the sprites from Pac-Man Championship Edition. Namco Networks made a downloadable bundle which includes its PC version of Pac-Man and its port of Dig Dug called Namco All-Stars: Pac-Man and Dig Dug. In 2010, Namco Bandai announced the release of the game on Windows Phone 7 as an Xbox Live game.[186]

For the weekend of May 21–23, 2010, Google changed the logo on its homepage to a playable version of the game[187] in recognition of the 30th anniversary of the game's release. The Google Doodle version of Pac-Man was estimated to have been played by more than 1 billion people worldwide in 2010,[188] so Google later gave the game its own page.[189]

In April 2011, Soap Creative published World's Biggest Pac-Man, working together with Microsoft and Namco-Bandai to celebrate Pac-Man's 30th anniversary. It is a multiplayer browser-based game with user-created, interlocking mazes.[190]

Notes

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Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pac-Man
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