If you've internalized some parental guilt about your own child's screen time usage, you're not alone. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to significant amounts of screen time in children leads to an increased risk of depression and behavioral issues, poor sleep and obesity, among other outcomes. Knowing all this can mean you're swallowing a big gulp of guilt every time you unlock the iPad or turn on the TV for your kiddo.
But is screen time really that bad? New research says maybe not. A study published in September 2021 of 12,000 9- and 10-year-olds found that even when school-aged kids spend up to 5 hours per day on screens (watching TV, texting or playing video games), it doesn't appear to be that harmful to their mental health.
Researchers found no association between screen usage and depression or anxiety in children at this age.
In fact, kids who had more access to screen time tended to have more friends and stronger peer relationships, most likely thanks to the social nature of video gaming, social media and texting.
The correlations between screen time and children's health
But those big social benefits come with a caveat. The researchers also noted that kids who used screens more frequently were in fact more likely to have attention problems, impacted sleep, poorer academic performance and were more likely to show aggressive behavior.
Without a randomized controlled trial, it's hard to nail down these effects as being caused directly by screens. The study's authors analyzed data from a nationwide study known as the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study), the largest long-term study of brain development and children's health in the country. They relied on self-reported levels of screen time from both children and adults (it's funny to note that those reported numbers differed slightly depending on who was asked… ).
It's important to remember that these outcomes are just correlations—not causations. "We can't say screen time causes the symptoms; instead, maybe more aggressive children are given screen devices as an attempt to distract them and calm their behavior," says Katie Paulich, lead author of the study and a PhD student in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience. Also worth noting is that a child's socioeconomic status has a 2.5-times-bigger impact on behavior than screens.
Weighing the benefits with the risks will be up to you as the parent, who knows your child best. And because we live in a digital world, screens are here to stay, meaning parents often have little choice in the matter. It's impossible to say whether recreational screen time is fully "good" or "bad" for kids. It's maybe both.
"When looking at the strength of the correlations, we see only very modest associations," says Paulich. "That is, any association between screen time and the various outcomes, whether good or bad, is so small it's unlikely to be important at a clinical level." It's all just part of the overall picture.
A novel look at screen time in adolescents
The researchers cite a lack of studies examining the relationship between screen time and health outcomes in this specific early-adolescence age group, which is one of the reasons why this study is so groundbreaking. The findings don't apply to younger children—or older adolescents, who may be starting to go through puberty.
Screen time guidelines do exist for toddlers up to older kids, but up to 1.5 hours per day seems unattainable for many young adolescents, who often have their own smartphones and laptops, or at least regular access to one.
Of course, more research is needed, but that's where this study can be helpful. The ABCD study will follow the 12,000 participants for another 10 years, following up with annual check-ins. It'll be interesting to see how the findings change over time: Will depression and anxiety as a result of screen time be more prevalent as kids age? We'll have to wait and see.
The bottom line? Parents should still be the gatekeepers of their child's screen time in terms of access and age-appropriateness, but, "our early research suggests lengthy time on screen is not likely to yield dire consequences," says Paulich.
100 Warrior Names for Your Strong Little Girl
Give your little girl a strong name indicative of the strong woman she’ll one day become from this list of baby names that are perfect for a warrior princess! You can’t go wrong with these fierce names which mean “warrior” and “soldier,” and have a variety of origins.
More:The Most Popular Viking Names to Inspire Your Search
If you’re looking for a list of names which evoke the strength of a warrior princess, this is the ultimate collection of warrior names.
- Aadya - Bengali, means "first" or "Earth" referring to the power that created the Earth
- Adira - Hebrew, means "strong, mighty"
- Aine - Celtic, means "radiance, splendor, brilliance"
- Alessia - Italian, means "helper, defender"
- Alexandra - Greek, means "helper, defender"
- Alexandria - English, means "helper, defender"
- Althea - Greek Mythology, means "with healing power"
- Alvilda - Norse, means "battle of elves"
- Amira - Arabic, means "commander"
- Andrea - English, German, Spanish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Dutch, Croatian, Serbian, means "manly, masculine"
- Annemarie - Hebrew, means "rebellious woman"
- Aoife - Irish Mythology, a warrior princess
- Artemis - Greek Mythology, goddess of the moon and of the hunt
- Athena - Greek Mythology, goddess of wisdom and of war
- Audelia - English, means "noble" or "strength"
- Audrey - English, means "noble" or "strength"
- Bellatrix - Latin, means “female warrior”
- Bellona - Roman Mythology, goddess of war, means "personification of battle"
- Bernadette - German, means "strong and brave as a bear"
- Brenda - Norse, means "sword"
- Brenna - Norse, means "sword"
- Bria - Irish, means "power, strength, vigor"
- Briana - English, means "high, noble"
- Bridget - Irish, means “exalted one" or "power”
- Brielle - English, means “warrior of God”
- Bryndis - Scandinavian, means "strong armor"
- Camilla - Roman Mythology, a legendary warrior maiden
- Carla - Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan, English, German, Dutch, means "army" or "warrior"
- Cassandra - Greek, means “man’s defender; warrior”
- Chasina - Aramaic, means "strong, mighty"
- Diana - Roman Mythology, goddess of the moon, hunting, forests, and childbirth
- Dusty - Norse, means "tough like the stone of Thor"
- Ebba - German, means "strength of an animal"
- Edrei - Biblical, means "strong and powerful"
- Elaheh - Persian, means "like a goddess"
- Enyo - Greek Mythology, a war goddess'
- Fairuza - Persian, means "woman of triumph"
- Fallon - Irish, means “superiority; descended from a ruler”
- Fianna - Irish, means "band of warriors"
- Finley - Scottish, means “fair warrior”
- Gabriella - Italian, means "God is my strength"
- Gertrude - English, Dutch, French, means "spear of strength"
- Gesa - Dutch, means "strength of a spear"
- Harlow - English, means “army”
- Jaiyana - Arabic, means "strength"
- Karleen - Old German, means "womanly strength"
- Kennedy - Gaelic, means "protected with helmet"
- Keren - Hebrew, means "strength, power"
- Louella - English, means "famous battle"
- Louisa - English, German, Dutch, means "famous battle"
- Lulu - German, means "famous battle"
- Maajida - Islamic, means "powerful"
- Maeve - Irish Mythology, warrior queen of Connacht
- Maia - Maori, means “brave warrior”
- Marcella - Latin, means “warlike”
- Marcheline - French, means “warrior”
- Malin - English, means “strong" or little warrior”
- Martina - Spanish, means "warrior"
- Matilda - German, means “battle-mighty”
- Maude - German, means “battle-mighty”
- Melisende - Medieval French, means "strong"
- Meredith - Celtic, means, “protector of the sea"
- Mia - Scandinavian, means "ocean goddess" or "queen"
- Minka - Polish, means "strong-willed warrior"
- Mildred - English, means "gentle strength"
- Morgan - Welsh, English, French, means “sea warrior”
- Moxie - American, means “boldness and strength of character”
- Mukta - Sanskrit, means "free"
- Myla - English, means “soldier"
- Neilina - Gaelic, means "champion"
- Nicole - French, means "victory of the people"
- Nikita - Greek, means “unconquered”
- Nirupama - Sanskrit, means "unmatched"
- Nirvana - Sanskrit, means "one who blows out"
- Qadira - Arabic, means "full of power"
- Olesia - Greek, means "man's defender"
- Oma - Arabic, means "thriving"
- Philomena - Greek, means "lover of strength"
- Reika - German, means "power of the wolf"
- Sasha - Russian, Ukranian, English, French, means “defending warrior”
- Sandra - Italian, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Czech, Romanian, means “defending warrior”
- Shamra - Arabic, means "ready for battle"
- Shahrzad - Persian, means "bringing freedom to the city"
- Thora - Scandinavian, means "Thor's struggle"
- Trudy - German, means "spear of strength"
- Tyra - Scandinavian, means “Thor’s warrior”
- Valda - German, means “battle heroine”
- Velda - German, means "ruler" or "power"
- Valencia - Spanish, means "strong, victorious"
- Valentina - Italian, Russian, Latvian, German, Croatian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slovene, Romanian, Spanish, Greek, Ancient Roman, means “strong, vigorous, powerful”
- Valerie - English, German, Czech, means, “strength, health”
- Vanshni - Biblical, means "strong"
- Victoria - Latin, means "victory"
- Walta - African, means "shield"
- Wilma - German, means "will helmet" or "protection"
- Wyetta - Old English, means "war strength"
- Zaila - Arabic, means "might, power"
- Zelda - English, Spanish, means “gray fighting maid"
- Zelma - German, means "helmet of God"
- Zenevieva - Slavic, means "woman of the people"
Looking for more baby names and inspiration? Check out our Baby Name Center.
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Powerful and strong names depict a sense of will power and unwavering determination. If you have been searching for the right name for your little angel, your search ends here. MomJunction has put together a collection of strong and powerful girl names from Hebrew, Arabic, Old English, Sanskrit and Old German cultures, which are sure to give a sense of empowerment to your baby girl. Get a strong hold on the list below.
Strong And Powerful Girl Names:
The name Aadya is rooted in Sanskrit. It means the power that gave rise to the five elements and five senses. Aadya is also the other name of Goddess Durga.
[ Read: Baby Girl Names That Mean Queen ]
Audrey, meaning ‘noble strength’ has risen in popularity, primarily because of its connection with the radiant and chic actress Audrey Hepburn. It’s also the name of a sixth-century saint revered during the Middle Ages.
Valerie is the French variant of the name Valeria and means ‘strength, health.’ This moniker has been on the popularity list since the 1880s. The association with the world valor gives it a sense of boldness. It also belongs to a martyred medieval saint.
This Hebrew name, meaning ‘strong’ is both simple and exotic. This lovely name is given just to a handful of girls every year, making it one of the rarest exotic names. We think it would make an excellent substitute for favorites Ariana and Ava.
Bree is a short and breezy name with a sophisticated image. It first came into notice via the movie “Klute”, which got Jane Fonda an Academy Award. It also featured in Stephenie Meyer’s novel “The Short Second Life of Bree Turner”. The meaning of Bree is ‘strength or an exalted one’.
Andrea is the feminine variation of the name Andrew and means ‘strong.’ It has a good selection of pronunciations too, like ahn-DRAY-a, ANN-dree-a, and AHN-dree-a- each sounding downright exotic. This moniker has remained surprisingly steady for decades.
Rainey, meaning ‘counsel power’ has an old-time appeal to it, primarily because of Ma Rainey, who was fondly referred to as the “Mother of the Blues.” Andie MacDowell also named his daughter Rainie, the variation of this name.
Valencia is an orange-scented Spanish place name, which means ‘brave and strong.’ The city of Valencia, the third largest in Spain was founded as a Roman colony. It was its highest #633 in the year 1969 to 70.
Althea is an ethereal name found in the Greek mythology and pastoral poetry. The meaning of Althea is ‘with healing power’. In the modern times, this name is associated with Althea Gibson, the first African-American tennis player to win at Wimbledon.
[ Read: Stylish Baby Girl Names ]
Bernadette is a German name, meaning ‘strong and brave as a bear.’ This friendly and overtly feminine name does not feel dated even in the slightest sense. In fact, it is much more widely used now than it was before.
Melisende is the mellifluous name belonging to the 12th-century queen of Jerusalem. Its spelling variation Melisande is associated with a fairy tale heroine too! The meaning of Melisende is ‘strong in work’.
Briana is the feminine version of the name Brian and means ‘strong, virtuous and honorable.’ This moniker was first coined by Edmund Spenser in his literary work, “The Faerie Queen”. This association gave Briana a classy pedigree.
Bridget is the Anglicized variation of the name Brighid and means ‘strength or exalted one.’ Also the name of the Celtic goddess of wisdom, Bridget is used widely by traditionalist. It’s also the name of the most famous female saint of Ireland.
Philomena is a charming and earthy Greek name, meaning ‘lover of strength.’ In the Greek mythology, Philomena was the Athenian princess whom the gods transformed into a nightingale to save her from the lecherous king. It’s also the namesake of the 13-year old martyr of Rome.
Valentina is the feminine variation of Valentine and means ‘strength.’ This artistic and lovely name entered the United States list in the year 1994 but performed its best in 2015. It is strongly associated with Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space.
Gertrude, meaning ‘spear of strength’ was at the pinnacle of fashion industry a century ago. It reached its highest, #23 in 1990. In Norse mythology, Gertrude is the name of a goddess. Gertie would make a very cute nickname for Gertrude.
[ Read: Royal Baby Girl Names ]
Trudy is a German name, meaning ‘spear of strength.’ This sincere, innocent and bright-eyed name is the first name of one of the most famous American racehorse breeder. And we have Trudy Marshall, the American actress as well.
This sweet and feminine name, meaning ‘strong at work’ is coming back to the forefront, along with names likes Cecilia and Madeline. This moniker has been in use since the Middle Ages and was even on the top 500 list in the 1920s.
Isa is a German name, meaning ‘strong-willed.’ You may consider it as the short form of Isadora or Isa, but it can be used on its own too! Isa Chandra Moskowitz, the vegan baker, and chef of the Post Punk Kitchen would be its namesake.
Gabriella is the Italian feminine variation of the name Gabriel and means ‘God is my strength.’ This strong, yet graceful baby name is on the rise and is given to more than 5000 baby girls every year. You can also try its Spanish spelling variation, Gabriela.
Keren is a Hebrew name, meaning ‘strength and power.’ Keren Ann, the Israeli singer, introduced this name to the United States. Do not mistake this name for Karen. It also belongs to Israeli Paralympic swimmer.
Matilda was first introduced to the English-speaking countries by the Matilda of Flander, the queen of William the Conqueror. It is currently at #34 in Germany and #45 in England. This vintage name means ‘might strong.’
[ Read: How To Choose Popular Girl Names ]
Brighid is the Irish variation of the name Bridget and means ‘strength.’ It’s the name of the mythical goddess of poetry, fire, and wisdom. Brighid Fleming, the American child actress, is its modern namesake.
Edrei is an Old Testament name, meaning ‘strong and powerful.’ In the Bible, Edrei is one of the chief towns of the Kingdom of Bashan.
Elfrida is a highly appealing English name, meaning ‘elf power.’ This relatively rare moniker has some worthy namesakes like Elfrida Andrée, the Swedish organist and composer and Elfriede Jelinek, the Austrian playwright and novelist.
Gesa is a lovely Dutch name, denoting the ‘strength of a spear’. This perennial classic Dutch name has been on the top 100 list since the year 1990.
This Arabic name translates to ‘strength’ in English. This name sounds slightly uptight. So we’d suggest you use Joy as the nickname for Jaiyana. It would make this serious name sound cool.
Karleen is an Old German name, meaning ‘womanly strength.’ This moniker sparkled all through the 80s and 90s, reaching as high as 340 in the year 1988.
This meek sounding, Old German name has a very powerful meaning. It means ‘lion’s strength,’ something which we all our daughters to have. Lenna Arnold, the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League pitcher, is the famous namesake.
Braelynn is supposed to be the combination of Brianna and Lynn, therefore, means ‘strength.’ This moniker will appeal to non – traditionalist parents as it is trendy, modern and has no cultural or historical significance.
[ Read: Tomboy Names For Girls ]
Emersyn is the female variation of the name Emerson and means ‘bravery or powerful.’ The French brought this name to England after the Norman Invasion. Pet forms like Emma, Emery, and Emmy would work well with this name.
Wyetta is an old-English name, meaning ‘war strength.’ This moniker is pretty, dainty and loaded with antique charm. It can be easily spelled and pronounced, making it a lovely all-round name.
The name Bria is inspired by the Irish name Bridget and means ‘power, strength, vigor.’ It first appeared on the American naming charts in the 1991 and shot up 176 spots in just two years.
Kendra is an uncommon baby girl name, meaning ‘enthusiastic power or wise ruler.’ This moniker got a boost in the years 2005 to 2007, influenced by Kendra Wilkinson, a reality television actress.
Sweet, short, pretty and straightforward, Nakti is an easygoing name, meaning ‘strong.’ And it’s even advancing up the charts.
We think Maajida is an undiscovered gem and would make an excellent option for parents looking for something original. This traditional Islamic name means ‘powerful.’ So this one’s out and out a keeper.
We love this name. It’s old school yet has a sweet-southern sensibility. And with the trend of the old-fashioned name, would make a great pick. The meaning of this Biblical name is ‘strong’.
Maliha is an all-around peach of a name. This Muslim name, meaning ‘beauty and strength’ is very popular with the Muslim parents and is given to over a thousand baby girls every year.
[ Read: Princess Baby Girl Names ]
Audelia is an English origin name and embodies ‘strength and nobility’. Also considered the variation of Audrey, Audelia is used more like a surname than as a first name.
Valda is a German name, meaning ‘rule and power.’ You can also try its variation Velda, which sounds equally beautiful.
Ebba is a German name, meaning ‘strength of an animal.’ This feminine version of Eberhard is currently one of the top 10 names in Sweden.
Audra is an English name, meaning ‘noble strength’. This name, used primarily in Scotland is associated with singer Audra McDonald. But there is a slight possibility of it being overshadowed by the classic Audrey.
Mildred is an English name, meaning ‘gentle strength’. This ancient moniker was popularized in England via the 8th century Saint. And in the United States, Mildred was one of the top 10 names from 1903 to 1926.
Carla is a Portuguese name, meaning ‘one who possesses strength’. Despite its strong meaning. This name sounds very romantic. Carla Bruni, the actress, singer, former model and former French First Lady is its most famous bearer.
Millie, the diminutive of Mildred, is in vogue again in Wales, England, and Scotland. It’s a winner in the United States as well, where it favored by parents looking for frilly, offbeat and old fashioned names.
[ Read: Most Popular Names For Baby Girls ]
Powerful Women Personalities:
This moniker is associated with some strong feminist symbols. One is the famous Amelia Earhart, the aviator who flew solo across the Atlantic Ocean. The other is Amelia Boynton Robinson, the Civil Rights Leader. This German name means ‘work.’
Pilar is the name of the brave heroine in Hemingway’s novel, “For Whom the Bell Tolls.” This name also honors Virgin Mary, which gives it a special sense of elegance, style and strength, making it a worthy choice.
Coretta Scott King was the name of Martin Luther King Junior’s wife, who carried on his legacy. Just like her husband, even Coretta was an activist and civil rights leader. Coming to the name, Coretta is the elaborate form of Cora and means ‘maiden.’
This lovely name belongs to Gloria Steinem, who pioneered women’s rights in the 60s and beyond. She was the leader and representative of the feminist movement from the 60s to 70s. This name was first used by George Bernard Shaw in its full form Gloriana in “You Never Can Tell”.
This name has two powerful references. One is Indira Nooyi, the CEO of Pepsi, who balanced her high profile career with motherhood. And the other is Indira Gandhi, the first woman prime minister of India.
[ Read: Cowgirl Names For Baby Girls ]
Sandra was the name of the first woman jurist in the Supreme Court of the United States. This moniker is a diminutive version of the name Alexandra and means ‘defending men.’ Sandra Bullock, the American actress, is another namesake.
The reference here is Mae West, one of the first movie stars. She captured the imaginations of several men for decades. This sweet name had vanished the baby name charts for forty years but made it back again in the year 2010.
Zora Neale Hurston was the pioneer of African-American literature of her time. This moniker was used fairly well from the 1880s until 1940 and reached its all-time high #293 in the years 1885.
The fashion icon Coco Chanel was the goddess of the fashion industry. She set trends that are alive even today. Did you know the Coco Chanel original name is Gabrielle? Even Courtney Cox chose this name for her daughter.
Sheryl Sandberg, the COO of social site Facebook wrote a popular book inviting women to embrace the leadership roles. She is the role model for many entrepreneurs. Another powerful namesake is Sheryl Denise Swoopes, the American basketball player.
The name Maya here refers to Maya Angelou, who was an American memoirist, poet, and civil rights activist. She is renowned for her series of seven autobiographies that focus on childhood and adult experiences. The meaning of the mystical and exotic name is ‘water’.
I think we all know Ruth, the freelance writer who worked hard for the women’s rights in the New York City, United States during and after World War 1. Ruth is a Hebrew name, meaning ‘compassionate friend.’
[ Read: Best Twin Baby Girl Names ]
Ellen is synonymous with Ellen DeGeneres, the talk show host and the animal rights activist. But in the yesteryears, this name was associated Ellen Ochoa, the astronaut. The name may sound a bit old-fashioned, but it emerged as the top baby name in the year 2015.
The name Irena s associated with the 8th century Empress of the Byzantine Empire. This fierce lady gouged out her son’s eyes so that he becomes unfit for the ruling. She became the first woman to rule the Byzantine Empire.
Alexandrine Tinne was the first European woman who attempted to cross the Sahara in the year 1859. This unusual baby name has royal ties in several nations. It was also the first name of Queen Victoria.
Fans of the “Avengers” films would know whom we are referring to here. Scarlett Johansson kicks some asses real good as Black Widow.
Kamala Khan is the not just the first Muslim superhero to grace the vibrant world of Marvel, but also a Pakistani teenage, inspiring teens in so many ways.
England’s legendary Queen has a name that is indeed timeless. This name has a dozen of nickname options like Bess or Eliza.
Susan was the first name of the most famous suffragist in the 20th century. Despite such a beautiful meaning (Lily) and such a powerful namesake, Susan is not very common today.
Harriet is the name of the former slaved guided a dozen of slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad. She even fought for the women’s suffrage.
[ Read: Nature Names For Baby Girls ]
Also called the “last of the Romantic travelers,” Freya Stark was the first European woman to enter Iran. Her name also belongs to the Norse goddess of beauty and love.
Rosa Parks was the first lady of American civil rights movement. As a name, we think Rosa is a better variation of the name Rose.
Jane Austen, the writer, was the grande dame of her time. Even her name is as classic as her novel. This name has seen a surge in popularity in the recent years.
Hester Stanhope was a highborn British lady who led a life of ultimate adventure. She sailed to Athens, set out for Egypt and even met with the rulers.
Hillary Clinton, the former first lady and former secretary of state, is one of the most powerful women of today.
Louisa May Alcott, the writer of the novel “Little Women” is widely popular even today. We feel that this beautiful name, meaning ‘fame’ deserves a second chance.
Janet Yellen made history when she became the first female head of the Federal Reserve. Janet is a pet form of the name Jane and means ‘god’s gracious gift.’
Isabella Bird was the first person to be inducted into the Royal Geographical Society. She became a household name for her writings and explorations on Korea, Morocco, China, India, and Australia.
Angela Merkel, the German chancellor, has been the most powerful woman on earth for ten years, as per Forbes. She is renowned for fighting off the national recession during the economic crisis.
Junko Tabei was the first woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest. This Japanese name is very popular in its native place.
Melinda Gates, the wife of Bill Gates, has cemented her dominance in global development and philanthropy. The name Melinda was created in the 18th century when it was a fad for names ending with ‘India’.
Emily Dickinson was the beloved poet of the 19th century. It has been a top name for girls for the past several decades.
Here, we are referring to Mary Barra, the CEO of GM. Mary was the top name for girls from 1990 to 1962.
Michelle Obama, the first lady of the United States, has earned a name for herself. She pushed an initiative for improving the well-being and financial stability of women.
Beatriz Potter was the name of the creator of Peter Rabbit series. It will make a great pick for parents looking for a distinctive, classic name.
This singer’s name, meaning ‘bright light’, indicates someone who is destined to be a superstar.
Nellie Bly was New York’s famous investigative and adventurous journalist who was on a trip to the world for 72 days.
Karen, as in Karen Kaplan, the CEO of marketing agency Hill Holiday. This Scandinavian name means ‘pure.’
Frida Kahlo is the Mexican artist whose brilliance was not recognized until decades after her demise. This German name means ‘peace.’
Dilma Rousseff is the first female President of Brazil. She works with the aim of ending poverty in the world’s seventh largest economy.
Did we miss any of your favorite powerful and strong girl names? Tell us in the comment section below and also please do not forget to take out an interesting quiz below!
Girl bold names
She stands in her underwear and silently looks at me. Anya put her palms on my chest and pressed against me. Anya pressed closer to me.100 NEW MODERN \u0026 BOLD BABY NAMES FOR 2021 - Unique One of a Kind Aesthetic Baby Names Boys \u0026 Girls
When I arrived, grandfather was lying in his bed. I asked him to allow me to lie with him, complaining that I was cold at home, and his bed was by the stove. Usually I go to bed in a bra and panties, so I did this time.
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To receive encouragement, that is, pleasure. Well, or the memory of pleasure. Learn a lesson, so to speak. Punishment and encouragement, a stick and a carrot - these are the Leader's two levers, he has nothing else for me.